Chemistry Definitions

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  • Created by: mimipopx
  • Created on: 23-04-16 11:15
1 mole
the amount of substance containing the Avogadro number of atoms, molecules or ions
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Atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of that element
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Relative atomic mass
the weighted average mass of an atom of that element divided by 1/12th the mass of a C-12 atom
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Relative molecular mass
the average mass of a molecule divided by 1/12th the mass of a C-12 atom
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Mass number
the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
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Relative isotopic mass
the mass of an atom of that isotope divided by 1/12th the mass of a C-12 atom
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Isotopes
atoms of the same element with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
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1st ionization energy
the energy required to remove 1 mole of electrons from 1 mole of GASEOUS atoms to form 1 mole of +1 ions
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An orbital
a region in space occupied by one or two electrons
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Effective nuclear charge
the net charge on the nucleus (proton number - number of electrons in inner shells)
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1st electron affinity
the energy change when one mole of electrons is added to one mole of neutral gaseous atoms
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Electronegativity
the extent to which it attracts a pair of bonding electrons in a covalent bond
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Dative covalent bond
a covalent bond in which both electrons in the shared pair are provided by one atom
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Disproportionation
a redox reaction in which an element in a single species is both oxidized and reduced
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Isomers
same molecular formula but different structural formulae
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Structural isomer
same MOLECULAR formula, different arrangement of atoms
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Radical
species with an unpaired electron
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Hazard
the potential to do harm
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Risk
the probability of harm occurring (reduce a risk)
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SHC
heat required to increase the temperature of 1g of substance by 1 degree
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Standard enthalpy of formation
energy change when 1 mole of substance is formed from its elements in their standard states
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Standard enthalpy of combustion
energy change when 1 mole of substance is burned in excess oxygen
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Standard enthalpy of neutralization
energy change when 1 mole of water is produced by the neutralization of an acid by excess base
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Standard enthalpy of atomization
energy change when 1 mole of gaseous atoms is formed from the element
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Rate of reaction
change in concentration in a given time
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Activation energy
the minimum KE that the colliding particles must possess for the collisions to be successful
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Homogenous
same phase
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Heterogeneous
different phases
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A catalyst
speeds up a reaction by providing an alternative route with a lower activation energy
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Activation Energy
the minimum quantity of energy which the reacting species must possess in order to undergo a specified reaction.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of that element

Back

Atomic number

Card 3

Front

the weighted average mass of an atom of that element divided by 1/12th the mass of a C-12 atom

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

the average mass of a molecule divided by 1/12th the mass of a C-12 atom

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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