Chemistry Core AQA

What are all substances made of?
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How many types of atoms are elements made of?
Elements are only made of one type of atom
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How are elements in the periodic table arranged?
They are arranged in groups. Each group contains elements with similar properties. They are also arranged in order of atomic number
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What is the nucleus of an atom surrounded by?
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What are compounds?
Substances that are made when two or more elements chemically bond together
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What is the charge of a proton?
Positive (+1)
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What is the charge of a neutron?
Nothing (0)
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What is the charge of an electron?
Negative (-1)
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What does the atomic number show?
How many protons are in the nucleus of the atoms
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What does the mass number show?
The total mass of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
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Why are noble gases (group 0) unreactive?
They are unreactive because they all have a very stable arrangement of electrons
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What do group 1 elements react quickly/violently with?
Water and Oxygen
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What kind of bonds do metals and non-metals form?
Ionic bonds
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What kind of bonds do two non-metals form?
Covalent bonds
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Are the mass of the reactants the same, more or less than the mass of the products?
The same
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Are atoms created or destroyed in a reaction?
Neither. Atoms aren't created or formed during a reaction
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What is limestone mainly made up of?
Calcium Carbonate
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What can be produced from limestone?
Calcium oxide and cement
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When calcium carbonate decomposes through the use of heat, what does it form?
Calcium oxide and carbon dioxide
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What is this process called (decomposing through the use of heat)?
Thermal Decomposition
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Decomposing any metal carbonate forms...
A metal oxide and carbon dioxide
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Carbonate + Acid goes to...
Salt, water and carbon dioxide
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What happens when carbon dioxide is added to limewater?
It goes cloudy
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Step 1 of the limestone cycle?
Heat calcium carbonate to form calcium oxide (carbon dioxide is given off)
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Step 2 of the limestone cycle?
Add a little water to calcium oxide to form calcium hydroxide
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Step 3 of the limestone cycle?
Add more water and filter to form calcium hydroxide solution (limewater)
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Step 4 of the limestone cycle?
Add carbon dioxide to form a precipitate
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What is the white precipitate that is formed in limewater that makes it go cloudy?
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How is cement made?
Heating limestone with clay in a kiln
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How is mortar made?
Mixing cement with sand and water
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How is concrete made?
Mixing aggregate with sand, cement and water
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Advantages of limestone?
Useful as building material, more jobs for local people (in quarries, etc), more customers and trade for local businesses, improved roads
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Disadvantages of limestone?
Dust, noise, increase in traffic, loss of habitats, uses large areas of land
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Where are metals usually found?
In the Earth's crust
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What are they usually combined with when found?
Other elements such as oxygen
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What does an ore contain?
Enough metal to make it worth extracting the metal
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What does the method used to extract the metal depend on?
On the reactivity
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How are unreactive metals found in the Earth?
As the metal itself, not chemically bonded to other elements
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Which type of metal can be reduced using carbon?
Oxides of metals less reactive than carbon can be reduced by carbon
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Where is iron oxide reduced? Why?
In a blast furnace to form iron
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What is the problem with the iron from the blast furnace?
It is too brittle for many uses
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What is most iron converted into?
Iron is usually conveted into an alloy called steel
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What do steels contain?
Carefully controlled quantities of carbon and other elements
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What do aluminium and titanium have in common?
They resist corrosion and they have low densities
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Why can't aluminium and titanium be extracted from their oxides using carbon?
Because they are more reactive than carbon
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Why is it expensive to extract aluminium and titanium?
The extraction process involves many stages and requires large amounts of energy
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How is most copper extracted?
From copper-rich ores by smelting
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How can copper be purified?
Through the use of electrolysis
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What is bioleaching?
A method of extracting copper that uses bacteria to produce solutions containing copper compounds
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What is phytomining?
A method of extracting copper that uses plants to absorb copper compounds from the ground. The plants are burned and produce ash from which copper can be extracted
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When is bioleaching or phytomining used?
When extracting copper from low-grade copper ores
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How can copper be obtained from solutions of copper salts?
By displacement
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What are the properties of transition metals?
Good conductors of heat and electricity, strong, can be bent/hammered into shape
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What do these properties make them useful for?
Materials for buildings, vehicles, containers, pipes and wires
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What does recycling do? (in terms of metallic issues)
Saves energy and limited resources
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Benefits of using metals in construction
Strong, can be bent into shape, can be made into flexible wires, good electrical conductors
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Drawbacks of using metals in construction
Extraction from ores causes pollution, uses up limited resources, more expensive than other materials, iron and steel can rust
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What is the method used to separate a mixture of liquids?
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What is a hydrocarbon?
A compound that contains only hydrogen and carbon molecules
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What are alkanes?
A saturated hyrdrocarbon
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What is the general formula for alkanes?
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How is crude oil separated?
Into fractions using fractional distillation
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Where are the fractions with the lower boiling points found in the chamber?
Towards the top
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Where are the fractions with the higher boiling points found in the chamber?
Towards the bottom
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How viscous and flammable are fractions with low boiling points?
Less viscous (so they are runny) and burn more easily
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What does burning hyrdrocarons in plenty of air produce?
Carbon dioxide and water
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What does burning hyrdrocarbons in a limited supply of air produce?
Carbon monoxide and particulates
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When are oxides of nitrogen formed?
When fuels burn under extreme conditions
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What causes acid rain?
Sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen oxides
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What does carbon dioxide cause?
Global warming
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What do particulates cause?
Global dimming
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How can we reduce the amount of sulphur dioxide we produce?
By removing sulphur from fuels before they are burned
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What can biofuels be made from?
Plant or animal products
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What can biodiesels be made from?
Vegetable oils
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Why are biofuels better than fossil fuels?
They are sources of renewable energy
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Advantages to biodiesel?
It's carbon neutral - the carbon dioxide that is produced when it is burned was taken by the plants from the atmosphere as they grew
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Disadvantages of biodiesel?
The crops grown for biodiesel take up a lot of farmland
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What is ethanol made from?
Sugar cane/beet
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What is the only thing that hyrdrogen produces when it is burnt?
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What is cracking?
Breaking large hydrocarbon molecules down into smaller molecules
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What two ways can cracking be carried out?
By heating a mixture of hydrocarbon vapours and steam to a very high temperature/By passing hydrocarbon vapours over a hot catalyst
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What does cracking produce?
Alkanes and alkenes
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What is an alkene?
An unsaturated hydrocarbon which contains a carbon-carbon double bond
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What colour do alkenes turn bromine water?
Orange to colourless
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What are the small molecules used to make polymers called?
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What is the reaction to make a polymer called?
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Uses of polymers?
Packaging, medical applications and clothing
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What is the problem with plastics (in terms of waste)?
They aren't biodegradable
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How can we make biodegradable plastics?
By making plastics from corn starch
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How can ethanol be produced by fermentation of sugar [using yeast]?
The enzymes in the yeast cause the sugar to convert to ethanol and carbon dioxide
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Explain the process of hydration of ethene
Ethene is reacted with steam at a high temperature in the presence of a catalyst. The ethene used is obtained from crude oil by cracking
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Advantages of fermentation?
Produced from a renewable source, fermentation is done at room temperature
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Disadvantages of fermentation?
Can only produce a dilute aqueous solution of ethanol, ethanol must be separated by fractional distillation to form pure ethanol
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Advantages of hydration?
Can be run continuously, produces pure ethanol
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Disadvantages of hydration?
Uses non-renewable sources, requires high temperatures
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How can vegetable oils be extracted?
By pressing plant material (e.g. nuts, fruits, seed, etc.) or distilling the plant material mixed with water
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Why can they be used as biofuels?
They release a lot of energy when they burn in air
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Unsaturated oils do what to bromine water?
They decolourise it
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Why are vegetable oils useful in cooking?
Their boiling points are higher than water, so food is cooked at higher temperatures, meaning it cooks faster.
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What does cooking oil do to the food?
Increases energy content, changes the flavour, changes the texture
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How can vegetable oils be hardened?
Reacting them with hyrdrogen at 60 degrees Celsius with a nickel catalyst.
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What does hardening the vegetable oils do?
Makes them solid at room temperature so it makes them suitable for spreading
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What can oils and water be used to produce?
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What do emulsifiers do?
Stop oil and water from separating into layers
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What do emulsifiers contain?
Molecules in which one part is hydrophilic and one part is hydrophobic
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What are the layers that the Earth is made up of?
The crust, mantle, inner core and outer core
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What surrounds the Earth?
The atmosphere
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What is the Earth's upper mantle and crust cracked into?
Tectonic plates
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Why do tectonic plates move?
Because of the convection currents in the mantle. These currents are caused by radioactive decay
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Where do volcanoes and earthquakes occur?
Where tectonic plates meet
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Why wasn't Wegener's theory of continental drift accepted?
He could not explain it/lack of evidence
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How was the Earth's early atmosphere formed?
By volcanic activity
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What did the atmosphere most probably mainly consist of?
Carbon dioxide, but there may also have been water vapour together with traces of methane and ammonia
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What happened to the oxygen levels as plants spread over the Earth?
They increased
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What was the Miller-Urey experiment?
Used a mixture of water, ammonica, methane and hydrogen and a high voltage spark to simulate lightning. After a week they found that amino acids had been produced
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Why are all theories about how life started unproven?
Nobody can be sure about how life began
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Where was most of the carbon dioxide locked up in the early atmosphere?
In sedimentary rocks
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How much of the atmosphere is made up of nitrogen?
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How much of the atmospshere is made up of oxygen?
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What are the other gases in the atmosphere?
Carbon dioxide, argon, traces of other gases
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How can the main gases in the air be separated?
By fractional distillation
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Explain this process
Air is cooled to below -200 degrees Celsius, fed into fractional distillation column, nitrogen is then separated from oxygen and argon, further distillation forms pure oxygen and argon
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What can the gases be used for?
Used in industry as raw materials
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


How many types of atoms are elements made of?


Elements are only made of one type of atom

Card 3


How are elements in the periodic table arranged?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is the nucleus of an atom surrounded by?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What are compounds?


Preview of the front of card 5
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