CHEMISTRY - chemical definitions

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Chemical Equations - Definitions
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Aqueous solutions
substances dissolved in water
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Law of Conservation of Mass
no atoms are lost or made during a chemical reaction, so the mass of the reactants equals the mass of the products
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Compounds
contains two or more substances, chemically bonded together - they have a fixed ratio of elements snd require chemical reactions to be seperated
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Atomic Number
number of protons
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Mass Number
the total number of particles in the nucleus of an atom
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Ion
a charged atom - if an atom gains electrons it becomes negativley charged, if it loses an atom it becomes positivley charged
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Isotopes
atoms with the same atomic numebr but different mass numebrs (atoms of the same element always have the same number of protons but can have different numbers of neutrons) - different physical properties, same chemical properties
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Isotopes - properties explained
they have diferent physical properties but the same chemical properties because chemical reactions rely on the electronic structure of an atom, which remains unchanged in an isotope
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Alloy
a micture of two elements - at leats one of which must be a metal
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Malleable
can be hammered into shape
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Ductile
can be drawn out into wires
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Metal
a lattice of positivley charged ions, arranged in regular layers
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Polymer
a long chain of small, reactive mollecules bonded together
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Fullerenes
hollow shaped mollecules of carbon (high tensile strength and good thermal and electrical conductivity)
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Graphene
a single sheet of carbon (conducts electrical and thermal energy, has a low density and is very strong for its mass)
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Alkali
a soluble hydroxide, releases hydroxide ions into solution (OH-)
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Base
includes alkalis - substances that can neutralise acids
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Acid
a substance that can neutralise alkalis and bases, release H+ ions in solution
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Titration
a technique used to measure the exact volume of an acid needed to neutralise an alkali (or vice versa)
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End Point
the pointat which the acid and alkali have completely reacted
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Bond Energy
the energy needed to break the bond between two atoms (the energy supplied to break bonds is endothermic, and the energy release when bonds are formed is exothermic)
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Endothermic Reaction
the energy used to break the bonds is greater than the energy released when forming them - energy is taken in from the surroundings
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Exothermic Reaction
the energy released by forming bonds is greater than the energy taken in to break them - energy is transferred to the surroundings
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

substances dissolved in water

Back

Aqueous solutions

Card 3

Front

no atoms are lost or made during a chemical reaction, so the mass of the reactants equals the mass of the products

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

contains two or more substances, chemically bonded together - they have a fixed ratio of elements snd require chemical reactions to be seperated

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

number of protons

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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