CHEMISTRY - Chemical Analysis

Chemical Analysis
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Pure Substance
a substance made up of just one element or compound
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Testing for Water
it turns white anyhydrous copper sulfate blue (but this test only shows that water is present)
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Testing for Pure Water
melting point is exactly 0'C and the boiling point is exactly 100'C
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Identifying Pure Substances
melting points and boiling points can be used to identify pure substances because they have specific temperatures at which they melt and boil (its fixed points) - because impurities lower the MP and raise the BP
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Fixed Point - Definition
the exact point at which a pure substance melts or boils
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Formulation
a mixture that has been designed to produce a useful product (such as paints and alloys)
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Analysing Chromatograms
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Mobile Phase
the solvent - with a stronger attraction to the mobile phase, a substance will move further in a set time
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Stationary Phase
the paper
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Testing for Gasses
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Hydrogen Gas
a lighted splint burns rapidly with a squeaky pop
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Oxygen Gas
a glowing splint relights
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Carbon Dioxide Gas
turns limewater cloudy
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Chlorine
bleaches damp blue litmus paper white
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Tests for Positive Ions
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Lithium (Li+)
burns crimson
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Sodium (Na+)
burns yellow
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Potassium (K+)
burns lilac
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Calcium (Ca2+)
burns orange-red
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Copper (Cu2+)
burns green
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Testing for Hydroxides
add sodium hydroxide, and a precipitate of the metal hydroxide will form - aluminium,
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Testing with Sodium Hydroxide
copper (II) ions form a blue precipitate of copper (II) hydroxide // iron (II) ions form a green precipitate of iron (II) hydroxide // iron (III) ions form a brown precipitate of iron (III) hydroxide
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Testing for Negative Ions
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Testing for Carbonate Ions
add dilute hydrochloric acid to the substance and see if it fizzes - the gas produced should be carbon dioxide which woud turn limewater cloudy
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Testing for Halide Ions
add dilute nitric acid and silevr nitrate solution - chlorine ions give a white precipitate // bromine ions give a cream precipitate // iodide ions give a yello precipitate
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Testing for Sulphate Ions
add dilute hydrochloric acid and barium chloride solution - if a white precipitate form then sulphate ions are present
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Pure Substance

Back

a substance made up of just one element or compound

Card 3

Front

Testing for Water

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Testing for Pure Water

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Identifying Pure Substances

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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