Chemistry - C4

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  • Created by: L_Georgie
  • Created on: 16-04-16 10:59
What does the nucleus of an atom contain?
Protons and neutrons.
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Where are the electrons found in a atom?
They are found orbiting around the nucleus in a electron shell.
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What is a Protons relative mass and charge?
A proton has a relative mass of 1 and a charge of +1.
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What is a neutrons relative mass and charge?
A neutron has a relative mass of 1 and a charge of 0.
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What is a electrons relative mass and charge?
A electron has a relative mass of 0.0005 and a charge of -1.
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What charge does a neutral atom have overall?
It has no charge.
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In a neutral atom what has the umber of protons got to do with the number of neutrons?
The number of protons and neutrons are the same.
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What happens if an electron is added or removed?
The atom becomes charged and is then an ion.
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What are the for state symbols and what do they stand for?
(s) - solid (l) - liquid (g) - gas (aq) - aqueous/dissolved in water.
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What colour flame does lithium produce when it is burned?
It produces a red flame.
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What colour flame does sodium produce when it is burned?
It produces a yellow/orange flame.
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What colour flame does potassium produce when it is burned?
It produces a lilac flame.
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Why does each element produce different wavelengths of light?
Because each element has different electron arrangement.
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What can an elements line spectrum be used for?
It can be used to identify the elements.
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What is the practicle technique used to produce line spectrums called?
Spectroscopy.
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What elements were discovered because of spectroscopy?
Caesium, rubidium and helium.
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How did Dobereiner try to organise the elements into a periodic table?
He organised the known elements into triads based on their chemical properties and the middle element of each triad had a relative atomic mass that was the average of the other two.
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How did Newlands' try to organise the elements into a periodic table?
He organised the known elements into octaves as he noticed that every eighth element had similar properties.
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Why was Newlands' work criticised by other scientists?
Some of the groups contained elements that weren't similar, he mixed up metals and non-metals and he didn't leave any gaps for elements that hadn't been discovered.
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How did Mendeleev organise the elements into the periodic table of elements?
He put them in order of atomic mass but left gaps to keep elements with similar properties in the same vertical groups.
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How is the modern periodic table organised?
It is organised out in increasing proton number and then they are split into different groups and periods.
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What does the group number tell you about an element?
The group number tells us how many electrons there are in the outer shell of the atom.
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What does the period number tell you about an element?
The period number tells us how many electron shells an element has.
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What is the maximum amount of electrons that the first three shells of an atom can have?
The 1st shell can have 2, the second shell can have 8 and the third can have 8.
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What happens when a group one element loses an electron?
It becomes a positive ion.
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What happens when a group seven element gains an electron?
It becomes a negative ion.
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What is an ionic bond?
When a positive and negative ion join together because oppositely charges ions are strongly attracted to each other.
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Can ionic compounds conduct electricity?
They can conduct electricity but only when they are molten or dissolved in water as then the electrons can move.
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What do the charges in an ionic compound add up to?
Zero.
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What are group one elements also know as?
The alkali metals.
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Why are alkali metals very reactive?
Because they only have one electron on their outer shell.
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What happens when alkali metals are cut?
At first they are shiny but then the react with oxygen in the air and tarnish.
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As you go down group one what happens to the alkali metals reactivity, density, melting point and boiling point?
They become more reactive, they have a higher density, a lower boiling point and a lower boiling point.
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What happens when you react alkali metals with water?
They react very vigorously and produces hydrogen and makes an alkaline solution.
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What happens when you react alkali metals with chlorine?
They react vigorously and produce colourless crystalline salts.
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What are group 7 elements know as?
Halogens.
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What makes the halogens very reactive?
The fact that they have seven electrons on their outer shell.
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As you go down group seven what happens to the atoms reactivity, melting point and boiling point?
They become less reactive and have higher melting and boiling points.
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What colour and state are fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine at room temperature?
Fluorine is a yellow gas at room temperature, chlorine is a dense green gas at room temperature, bromine is a orange liquid at room temperature and iodine is a dark grey solid at room temperature.
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How reactive and poisonous are fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine?
Fluorine is very reactive and poisonous, chlorine is fairly reactive and poisonous, bromine isn't that reactive but is poisonous and iodine is the least reactive and not poisonous.
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What happens to halogens when they react with alkali metals?
They form salts called metal halides. The reactions become less vigorous as you go down the group.
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What happens to halogens when they react with iron?
They react with iron to form coloured solids called iron halides. the reactions become less vigorous as you go down the group.
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What is a displacement reaction?
A reaction where a more reactive chemical 'pushes out' (displaces) a less reactive chemical from the compound.
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What safety precautions are in place when storing alkali metals?
They are stored in oil to stop them from reacting with the air and bursting into flames.
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Why can't you touch alkali metals with your bare hands?
The sweat on your hands are enough to set of a reaction with the alkali metals.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Where are the electrons found in a atom?

Back

They are found orbiting around the nucleus in a electron shell.

Card 3

Front

What is a Protons relative mass and charge?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a neutrons relative mass and charge?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a electrons relative mass and charge?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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