Chemistry C3 1.3 Group 1 – the alkali metals

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What are the elements in Group 1 of the periodic table called?
The alkali metals.
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What is produced when an alkali metal reacts with water?
Hydrogen gas and an alkaline solution containing the metal hydroxide (a metal hydroxide that is an alkali).
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In reactions to make ionic compounds, what do alkali metals form?
Positive ions with a charge of 1+.
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What do alkali metal compounds look like?
They are usually white or colourless crystals that dissolve in water producing colourless solutions.
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Does the reactivity of the alkali metals increase or decrease going down the group?
Increase.
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When alkali metals react, they only form what?
Ionic compounds in which their ions have a single positive charge.
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What are the Group 1 elements called?
Alkali metals.
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What do the alkali metals readily react with?
Air and water.
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What properties do alkali metals have?
They are soft solids at room temperature with low melting and boiling points that decrease going down the group. They have low densities, so lithium, sodium and potassium float on water.
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What does sodium + water (2Na(s) + Cl_2(g)) produce?
Sodium hydroxide + hydrogen (2NaOH(aq) + H_2(g)).
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What happens when alkali metals react in terms of their atomic structure?
They all have one electron in the highest occupied energy level (outer shell) and they lose this electron in reactions to form ionic compounds in which their ions have a single positive charge, e.g. Na^+.
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What happens when alkali metals react with the halogens (Group 7)?
They form salts that are white or colourless crystals.
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What does sodium + chlorine (2Na(s) + Cl_2(g)) produce?
Sodium chloride (2NaCl(s)).
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What happens to compounds of alkali metals when they are added to water?
They dissolve and form solutions that are usually colourless.
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What happens to the reactivity of the alkali metals as they go down Group 1?
It increases.
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Why does reactivity increase going down Group 1?
The outer electron is less strongly attracted to the nucleus as the number of occupied energy levels increases and the atoms gets larger.
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Card 2

Front

What is produced when an alkali metal reacts with water?

Back

Hydrogen gas and an alkaline solution containing the metal hydroxide (a metal hydroxide that is an alkali).

Card 3

Front

In reactions to make ionic compounds, what do alkali metals form?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do alkali metal compounds look like?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Does the reactivity of the alkali metals increase or decrease going down the group?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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