Chemistry C3 1.2

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What does the atomic (proton) number determine?
Its position in the periodic table.
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What does the number of electrons in the outermost shell (highest energy level) of an atom determine?
Its chemical properties.
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What is the Group number in the periodic table equal to?
The number of electrons in the outermost shell (highest energy level) of an atom of that element.
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How can we explain trends in reactivity as we go down a group in terms of?
-The distance between the outermost electrons and the nucleus. -The number of occupied inner shells (energy levels) in the atoms.
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When did scientists find out about protons and electrons?
At the start of the 20th century.
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What did scientists do soon after the discovery of protons and neutrons?
They developed models of the arrangements of electrons in atoms, then the elements were arranged in the periodic table in order of their atomic numbers (proton numbers) and were lined up in vertical groups.
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What do elements in the same group have in common?
They have similar chemical properties.
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Why do elements in the same group have similar chemical properties?
Because their atoms have the same number of electrons in their outermost shell (highest occupied energy level).
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What does the reactivity of the elements within a group depend on?
The total number of electrons. Going down a group, there are more occupied energy levels and the atoms get larger, as the atoms get larger, the electrons in the highest occupied energy level (outer shell) are less strongly attracted by the nucleus.
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What happens when metals react?
They lose electrons, so the reactivity of metals in a group increases going down the group.
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What happens when non-metals react?
They gain electrons, so the reactivity of non-metals decreases going down a group.
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Card 2

Front

What does the number of electrons in the outermost shell (highest energy level) of an atom determine?

Back

Its chemical properties.

Card 3

Front

What is the Group number in the periodic table equal to?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How can we explain trends in reactivity as we go down a group in terms of?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When did scientists find out about protons and electrons?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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