Chemistry C3

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What is a homologous series?
A homologous series is a series of chemicals that have a similar general formula and similar properties.
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What are three uses of alcohols?
Making solvents; Esters; Beverages.
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In electrolysis, what is oxidation and what is reduction?
Oxidation is the loss of electrons from charged ions; Reduction is the gain of electrons from charged ions.
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How can you obtain concentrated ethanol from a fermented mixture?
Ferment contains a mixture of liquids with different boiling points; to obtain pure ethanol, it must be distilled using fractional distillation.
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What is made when an organic acid is reacted with an ethanol in the presence of sulfuric acid?
An ester is made.
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What type of electrodes are used during the purification of copper?
Active elctrodes
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Why is more soap needed in hard water?
Minerals in hard water react with the soap; some of the soap becomes insoluble as it was used up in the reaction. It is hard to form lather because scum is produced.
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How are esters made? Include a word equation.
Esters are made by reacting a carboxylic acid with an alcohol. Ethanoic acid + Ethanol --> /
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Give three properties of esters that make them useful.
Soluble in organic solvents; Strong fruity smell; Solubility in water decreases as number of carbons in carbon chain increases
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When a reaction between gases has its pressure increased, how is the position of equilibrium affected?
The equilibrium goes to the side with the smaller number of molecules.
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What can a prolonged consumption of ethanol result in?
Decreased levels of iron- Anaemia; Vitamin B deficiency- Skin damage, depression; liver damage; death of brain cell's; increased risk of cancer to the mouth, liver, stomach...
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What colour precipitate would be produced if Copper(II) ions were present in a precipitate test?
A blue precipitate would be produced.
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What colour precipitate would be produced if Iron(II) ions were present in a precipitate test?
A green precipitate would be produced.
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What colour precipitate would be produced if Iron(III) ions were present in a precipitate test?
A brown precipitate would be produced.
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What colour precipitate would be produced if Aluminium ions were present in a precipitate test?
A white precipitate would be produced.
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In a flame test, what colour flame would burn if Sodium was present?
Yellow
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In a flame test, what colour flame would burn if Potassium was present?
Lilac
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In a flame test, what colour flame would burn if Calcium was present?
Brick red
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In a flame test, what colour flame would burn if Copper was present?
Blue-Green
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What is qualitative analysis?
Qualitative analysis is a test that determines which chemicals are present in a solution.
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What is quantitative analysis?
Quantitative analysis is a test that determines the amount of a particular chemical present.
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What is a "mole"?
A mole is a measure of the amount of a substance. The mass of a mole of atoms is always equal to the relative atomic mass of the element.
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What is Equilibrium?
Equilibrium is achieved when a reversible reaction occurs in a closed system. The reactions occur at reactions occur at exactly the same rate in both directions and never reach completion.
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What are esters?
An ester is an organic compound that contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
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Card 2

Front

What are three uses of alcohols?

Back

Making solvents; Esters; Beverages.

Card 3

Front

In electrolysis, what is oxidation and what is reduction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How can you obtain concentrated ethanol from a fermented mixture?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is made when an organic acid is reacted with an ethanol in the presence of sulfuric acid?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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