Chemistry c2

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Explain what is meant by the term 'polymerisation'
When small molecules are joined together to make very long molecules.
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The property of a polymer can be modified in several ways. Describe two ways in which this can be achieved and suggest the effect of each modification on the properties of the polymer.
Adding a plasticizer increases flexibility which increases crystallinity. Also adding a plasticizer increases melting point.
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Name a fraction of crude oil that's not used as a fuel and state what it's used for.
Bitumen is used as tar for roads.
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In recent years scientists have researched the effects of adding nanoparticles to materials. Give an example of how nanoparticles have improved the properties of an everyday product.
Silver nanoparticles have been added to fabrics to give them antibacterial properties. OR Carbon nanotubes have been added to sports equipment to make it stronger/stiffer/lighter.
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Clothing can be made from natural and synthetic materials. Name two natural materials that can be used to make clothing.
Wool and cotton or silk/linen.
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A policeman needs dofferent clothing depending on the duties that he is doing.Sometimes they need to be protected from stab injuries.Which polymers from the table above would be most appropriate for their clothing in these two different situations?(f
When working in the rain a police offer would need a jacket that is waterpoof and flexible but also breathable so PRFE would be the best choice.When working in a situation in which he might be stabbed, the police officer should wear clothing made usi
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Name the process used to seperate crude oil into useful hydrocarbons.
Fractional distillation.
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List the stages of fractional distillation. (finish answer)
Crude oil is heated to evaporate all of the hydrocarbons. The vapour passes into the fractionating column near the bottom and cools down as it rises. Each fraction condenses to a liquid and runs off when it has cooled below its boiling point. Any rem
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Explain the link between molecule size and boiling point.
The larger the molecule the stronger the intermolecular forces and the more energy that is needed to overcome the forces so the higher the boiling point.
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Crude oil is seperated by fractional distillation into useful fractions. Give a use for petrol, naptha and kerosene/parraffin.
Petrol is used for fuel for cars. Naphtha is used for making other chemicals. Kerosene (parrafin is used for aircraft fuel).
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Crude oil is seperated by fractional distillation into useful fractions. Give a use for diesel and fuel oil.
Diesel is used for cars, lorries and buses. Fuel oil is used for power for stations and ships.
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What are the properties and uses for unvulcanised rubber?
Unvulcanised rubber has low tensile strength and is soft and flexible. It it used for erasers and rubber bands.
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What are the properties and uses for vulcanised rubber?
Vulcanised rubber has high tensile strength and is hard and flexible. It is used for car tyres, conveyor belts and shock absorbers.
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What are the properties and uses of polythene?
Polythene is lightweight aswell as flexible and easily moulded. It is used for plastic bags and moulded containers.
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What are the properties and uses of polystyrene?
Polystyrene is lightweight, stiff, water resistant and is a good thermal insulator as a foam. It is used for meat trays, egg cartons, coffee cups and protecting appliances and electronics.
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What are the properties and uses of nylon?
Nylon is lightweight, tough, waterproof and it blocks ultraviolet light. It is used for clothing and climbing ropes.
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What are the properties and uses of polyester?
Polyester is lightweight, tough and waterproof. It is used for clothing and bottles.
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What is the effect on the properties of a plastic of cross-linking the polymer molecules?
Cross-linking makes a plastic stiffer and harder as it increases its melting point.
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What is a plasticizer and what does it do to the properties of a polymer?
A plasticizer is a small molecule that fits between polymer chains and weakens the intermolecular forces, making the polymer more flexible.
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What is nanotechnology?
Nanotechnology is the study and manipulation of very small particles.
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Give an example of how nanoparticles can occur naturally.
In sea spray.
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Briefly explain how adding nanoparticles modify the properties of other materials and suggest why this is useful. (finish answer)
Silver nano particles can be used to give fibres in clothes antibacterial properties. This keeps the material sterile. Sports equipment like tennis rackets and golf clubs usually have nanoparticles added to them to make them stronger than they were b
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The property of a polymer can be modified in several ways. Describe two ways in which this can be achieved and suggest the effect of each modification on the properties of the polymer.

Back

Adding a plasticizer increases flexibility which increases crystallinity. Also adding a plasticizer increases melting point.

Card 3

Front

Name a fraction of crude oil that's not used as a fuel and state what it's used for.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

In recent years scientists have researched the effects of adding nanoparticles to materials. Give an example of how nanoparticles have improved the properties of an everyday product.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Clothing can be made from natural and synthetic materials. Name two natural materials that can be used to make clothing.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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