Chemistry C1 entirety

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Chemistry C1.1 Fundamental ideas
Chemistry C1.1 Fundamental ideas
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What are all substances made up of?
Atoms
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Elements only contain one type of _____?
Atom
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Compounds contain?
More than one type of atom
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What is the very basic structure of a atom?
Nucleus in it's centre, surrounded by electrons.
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What are atoms made up of?
Protons, neutrons and electrons.
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Protons and electrons have.. charges?
Equal and opposite electric charges.
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Neutrons have... charge?
No electric charge, they are neutral.
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What are atoms arranged in?
Arranged on the periodic table in order of their atomic number.
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How do you work out a atoms atomic mass number?
Amount of protons + amount of neutrons = atomic mass number
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What are electrons in an atom arranged by?
In energy levels in shells.
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Atoms with the same amount of electrons in their outmost shell belong?
In the same group of the periodic table.
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What determines how a element reacts?
The number of electrons in the elements out-most shell.
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In group 0, the unreactive noble gasses, what are they?
They have very stable arrangements of electrons.
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What is the electron structure of the shells?
1st Shell - 2 electrons 2nd shell - 8 electrons 3rd shell - Fill up from here.
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What happens when atoms from different elements react?
Form a compound.
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What happens when metals react with non-metals?
Charged particles called ions form.
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Metal atoms form _____________?
Positively charged ions
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Non metals atoms form _________?
Negatively charged ions
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What do negatively and positively ions do?
When reacted they attract each other in ionic bonding.
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How do atoms in non-metals bond to each other?
They share electrons, called covalent bonding.
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The total mass of reactants = ?
The total mass of reactants = total mass of products
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Why does The total mass of reactants = mass of products?
No new atoms are ever created.
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There is the same number of each type of atom on each side of a _________?
Balanced symbol equation.
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Hydrogen + Oxygen = ?
Water (and the equation is balanced)
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C1.2 Rocks and building materials
C1.2 Rocks and building materials
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What is limestone made mainly from?
Calcium carbonate
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Where is limestone widely used?
The building industry
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Calcium carbonate in limestone braks down when?
We heat it strongly
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Why do we heat it strongly?
To make calcium oxide and carbon dioxide?
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What is this reaction called?
Thermal decomposition.
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What is the word equation for heating limestone?
Calcium carbonate --(heat)--> Calcium oxide + Calcium dioxide
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What is the symbol equation?
CaCO3 ----> CaO + CO2
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What is a rotary lime kiln and it's use? (google/print a diagram)
A kiln filled with crushed limestone, to make calcium oxide by heating it.
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What happens when Carbonates react with a dilute acid?
Salt, water and carbon dioxide.
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What happens to lime water in the test for CO2?
It turns cloudy.
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What causes this?
A precipitate of insoluble calcium carbonate causes the cloudiness.
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What happens when you heat metal carbonates?
They form metal oxide and carbon dioxide.
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What is a precipitate?
A substance precipitated from a solution.
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What happens when water is added to calcium oxide?
Calcium hydroxide is formed.
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What can calcium hydroxide be used for?
Calcium hydroxide is a alkali so can be used to neutralise acids.
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What is the reactions of limestone and it's products known as?
The limestone reaction cycle.
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Learn the limestone reaction cycle.
Learn the limestone reaction cycle.
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What is cement made by?
Heating limestone with clay in a kiln.
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What is mortar made by?
Mixing cement and sand with water.
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How is concrete made?
Mixing crushed rocks/small rocks (called aggregate) with cement and water
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What is one advantage and a disadvantage of quarrying for limestone/
More jobs but a big scar on the enviroment.
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What's the basic stages of limestone quarrying?
Blasted from quarry by explosives > Taken in lorries to be processed > Most of this goes to cement factories.
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What effects do explosions have on the enviroment and are there any advantages?
Leaves a big scar, scares of enviroment but large hole can be used for reservoirs or landfill.
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C1 3.1 Metals and their uses (made by DG)
C1 3.1 Metals and their uses (made by DG)
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What to metal ore's contain that makes them economically viable?
They contain enough of the metal to make it economic to extract the metal.
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Name a metal we can find in it's native state that's un reactive.
Gold
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What does the reactivity help us decide?
The best way to extract a metal from it's ore.
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Oxides of metals below carbon in the series can be reduced by what and to do what?
Reduced by carbon to give the metal element.
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Why can some metals not be extracted from their ores using carbon?
Their more reactive than carbon is
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What do chemists mean when they say that a metal oxide is reduced?
It's reduced by carbon to extract the metal element from the ore.
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Potassium or sodium cannot be extracted by Carbon. Why?
These metals are more reactive than carbon.
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How do we extract iron from iron ore?
Reducing it using carbon in a blast furnace.
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Why is pure iron not very useful?
To soft.
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Why would controlled quantities of carbon and other elements be added to iron?
To make alloys such as steel, as these alloys have different properties.
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What are 3 examples of steel?
Low carbon steels (easily shaped), high carbon steels (very hard) and stainless steels which are corrosion resistant.
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Why are aluminium and titanium useful on a industrial scale?
They resist corrosion.
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How do we extract aluminium from molten aluminium oxide?
Electrolysis as it's too reactive for Carbon,
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Why are aluminium and titanium expensive to extract?
Involves many stages and large amounts of energy.
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Can titanium be extracted from Carbon and are there any disadvantages to this?
Yes, but this would make it very brittle and we use sodium or magnesium.
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What are some useful properties of titanium and where is it used?
Useful in jet engines as keeps strength even at high temperatures.
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Why is titanium good for use in Nuclear reactors?
Resists high temperatures and it's tough oxide layer means that it resists corrosion.
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Name 3 uses of aluminium:
Drinks cans, cooking foil, sauce pans, high-voltage electricity cables, bicycles, air planes.
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How is most copper extracted?
Smelting (roasting) copper rich ores.
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What is a downside to this?
Our supplies of copper are running out and becoming more scarce.
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Name 2 ways in which copper can be extracted.
Electrolysis or displacement using scrap iron.
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What is electrolysis also used to purify?
Impure copper (from smelting)
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What are two other ways scientists are use to extract copper, than from our scarce reserves?
Bio leaching and phytomining.
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What is phytomining?
Some plants absorb copper compounds through their roots. They concentrate these compounds. The plants can be burned to produce an ash that contains the copper compounds. This method of extraction is called phytomining.
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What is bioleaching?
Some bacteria absorb copper compounds. They then produce solutions called leachates, which contain copper compounds. This method of extraction is called bioleaching.
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What % of our copper comes from bioleaching?
20%
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What is a disadvamtage of bioleaching?
It's a slow process. It can take years to extract 50% of metal from a low grade ore.
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Where are transition metals found in the periodic table?
The middle centre block.
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What are transition metals used for?
Making things and in buildings.
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Name a example where transition metals are used.
Copper is used in wiring because of it's high electrical conductivity.
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Why is copper, gold and aluminium alloyed with other metals?
To make them harder.
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Name a use of copper alloys.
Brass (alloying Copper with Zinc), and can be used for musical instruments.
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Name a use for aluminium alloys.
Can be used to build aircraft or armour plating on military vehicles.
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Name a use for gold alloys.
Jewellery.
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Other than making gold harder, what else can alloying change?
Gold's shape by varying the proportions of two metals.
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Pants can remove metals from ______ ores?
Low grade ores
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How can these metals be recovered too?
Processing the ash from burning the plants (phytomining)
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Name a advantage of using metals in construction.
Coppers a good electrical wiring conductor, aluminium is corrosion resistant.
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Name a drawback of using metals in construction.
Iron and steel can rust, thus weakening structures. Metals are also more expensive than other materials such as concrete.
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What's the word equation for phytomining?
Iron + copper sulfate ----> iron sulfate + copper
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C1 4.1 Crude oils and fuels
C1 4.1 Crude oils and fuels
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What is crude oil a mixture of?
Many different compounds.
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What is a hydrocarbon?
A compound that only contains hydrogen and carbon.
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Many of the compounds in crude oil are..?
Hydrocarbons
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What are alkanes?
Saturated hydrocarbons.
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What does this mean if their saturated?
They contain as many possible hydrogen atoms in their molecules as possible.
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What is the order for hydrocarbons in form of 1 carbon, 2C, 3C then 4C?
Methane (1C), Ethane (2C), Propane (3C), Butane (4C).
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How can we separate mixtures of substances in crude oil?
Distillation.
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What distillation do?
Separates liquids with different boiling points.
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How do we separate crude oil?
Separate it into fractions in a distillation column.
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What do the properties of each fraction depend on?
The size of their hydrocarbon molecules.
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What do lighter fractions make?
Better fuels as they ignite more easily, with less smoky flames. (cleaner flames)
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KEY TERMS:
KEY TERMS:
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Boiling point:
The temperature at which the liquid boils or gas condenses.
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Volatility:
The tendency to turn into a gas
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Viscosity:
How easy it flows (thick = high viscosity Very runny = low viscosity)
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Flammability:
How easy it burns.
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What do the properties of hydrocarbons depend on?
Chain length of their molecules.
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What happens when we burn hydrocarbons in plenty of air?
The carbon and hydrogen in the fuel becomes completely oxidises - this then produces CO2 and water.
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What happens to sulfur impurities when they burn?
It forms sulphur dioxide, which can damage the environment causing sulphur rain.
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What does changing the conditions in which we burn hydrocarbons fuels do?
Can change the products made.
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What happens if we burn fuels in insufficient oxygen?
We get poisonous carbon monoxide formed, and unburnt hydrocarbons especially if the fuel is diesel.
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At high temperatures in engines, nitrogen from the air reacts with oxygen to form?
nitrogen oxides.
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What are dangers of nitrogen oxides?
Can cause breathing problems and acid rain.
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Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides dissolve in droplets of water in the air reacting with oxygen. What happens then?
They fall as acid rain.
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How can we reduce pollution produced by burning fuels?
Treating the pollutants from combustion.
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What substances can this remove?
Nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and carbon monoxide.
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How can we reduce harmful substances from being released in cars?
A catalytic converter.
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What is a catalytic converter?
A device incorporated in the exhaust system of a motor vehicle, containing a catalyst for converting pollutant gases into less harmful ones.
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What are biofuels?
A renewable source of energy.
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What are the benefits of biofuels?
They could replace fossil fuel burning for fuels.
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What can biodiesel be made from?
Vegetable oils
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What also is a biofuel that can be made from the sugar of plants?
Ethanol
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What is another potential fuel for the future?
Hydrogen
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What are disadvantages of biodiesel?
Needs large areas of farmlands to be used, which could be used for food. Also at low temperatures bio diesels will start to freeze, unlike normal fuel.
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What are advantages of biodiesel?
Much less harmful to the enviroment; burns much more cleanly, and biodiesel is cheaper.
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C1.5 Products from oil
C1.5 Products from oil
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How can we split large hydrocarbon molecules into smaller molecules?
Mixing them with steam and heating them to high temperature's OR by passing the vapours over a hot catalyst.
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What does cracking produce?
Saturated hydrocarbons which are used as fuels and unsaturated hydrocarbons (called alkenes).
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Alkenes react with orange _____ water, turning it _______?
React with bromine water, turning it colourless.
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Testing to see if a hydro carbon is saturated or not:
unsaturated hydrocarbon + bromine water (orange-yellow) ---> Products (colourless)
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Testing if it's a negative test (meaning it's saturated)
saturated hydrocarbon + bromine water (orange) ---> no reaction (orange)
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Plastics are made up of _______?
Polymers
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What are polymers?
Large molecules made when monomers (small, reactive molecules) join together.
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What is this reaction called?
Polymerisation.
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What is a smart polymer?
A polymer that may have properties changed by light, temperature or by other changes in their surroundings.
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What are biodegradable plastics decomposed by?
Micro-organisms in soil
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What can plastics be made with to help them get broken down in soil?
Can be made with starch granules in their structure to help them get broken down.
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What can biodegradable plastics be made from?
Plant material such as cornstarch.
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What can ethanol be made from?
Ethene reacting with steam in the presence of a catalyst.
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What is this process called where ethanol is made?
Hydration
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How is Ethanol also made?
By fermenting sugar (glucose) using enzymes in yeast. CO2 is also made in this reaction.
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Using ethene to make ethanol needs what?
Non-renewable crude oil as a raw material.
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What's the word equation for Hydration?
ethene + steam --(catalyst)---> ethanol
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C1 6.1 Plant oils
C1 6.1 Plant oils
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Where and how can vegatable oils be extracted from?
Extracted from plants by pressing or distillation.
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What can vegetable oils be used to make?
Biofuels
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What do vegetable oils provide?
Nutrients and high energy content.
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What do unsaturated oils contain?
Carbon double bonds (C=C)
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How can this be detected?
They decolourise bromine water.
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What's the word equation for plants photosynthesis?
carbon dioxide+ water ---(chlorophyll (energy from sunlight) ---> gluecose + oxygen
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What's the balanced equation for photosyntheses?
6(CO(2) + 6(H2)O ------> (C6)(H12)(O6) + 6(O2)
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Why are vegetable oils useful in cooking?
High boiling points.
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What's a disadvantage to their use in cooking?
Increases energy content of foods compared to cooking with boiling water.
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How are vegetabe oils hardened, and why?
Hardened by reacting with Hydrogen to increase their boiling points.
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What catalyst is used and at what C?
With a nickel catalyst at 60C. This adds on C=C bonds onto the veg oil molecules.
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Oils do not dissolve in ________?
Water
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What do emulsifiers stop?
Oil and water separating out into layers.
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How does a emulsifier work?
One part of it's molecule dissolved in oil and one part dissolves in water.
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What is a emulsifier?
A substance that stabilizes an emulsion, in particular an additive used to stabilize processed foods.
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Why are Vegetable oils believed to be better for your health then saturated animal fats?
Provide nutrients and energy, and are un-saturated.
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How do emulsifiers improve the texture of foods?
Allow the water and oils to mix, making fatty foods more appealing to eat.
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What is a food additive?
A substance added to food to enhance its flavour or appearance or to preserve it.
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C1 7.1 Our changing planet
C1 7.1 Our changing planet
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What are the layers of the earth? (from surface to core)
Crust > Mantle > Core > Centre.
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Where do the earth's limited resources come from?
It's crusts, oceans and atmosphere.
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The earths crust and upper mantle is cracked into a number of massive pieces called?
Tectonic plated which are constantly slowly moving.
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What causes the motion of tectonic plates?
Convection currents in the mantle, due to radioactive decay.
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What happens when tectonic plates meet and collide?
Earthquakes, and volcanoes.
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What was the earth's atmosphere formed by?
Volcanic activity
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What did the earth's atmosphere mainly consist of?
CO2 water vapour, and small amounts of methane and ammonia.
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What caused the atmosphere's Oxygen levels to increase?
More plants spread over the earth, so the O2 levels increased.
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What is one theory about life being made on earth?
Came from reactions involving hydrocarbons (methane/ammonia) and the energy required could be provided by lightning.
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What do all these theories have in common?
They cannot be proven, and never have.
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What are the 2 main gasses in earth's atmosphere?
Oxygen and nitrogen.
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What percentages are these?
80% oxygen and 20% nitrogen.
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How can these main gasses in the atmosphere be separated?
Fractional distillation.
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Where are these gasses which can be separated (Oxygen and Nitrogen) used?
Used in industry as useful raw materials.
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Why has the amount of Carbon in our atmosphere risen?
Due to the large amounts of fossil fuels being burnt.
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Where does most of the electricity in the UK come from?
Burning fossil fuels.
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