Chemistry C1 and C2

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  • Created by: Amy_5639
  • Created on: 05-04-18 19:55
1.What are the three states of matter?
Solid, liquid and gas
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2.Describe the gold foil experiment carried out by Rutherford, Geiger and Marsden.
They fired positively charged alpha particles at an extremely thin sheet of gold, but whilst most particles went straight through some were deflected more than expected, so Rutherford came up the theory of the nuclear atom
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3.What are isotopes?
Isotopes are different forms of the same element, which have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
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4.Outline how Mendeleev arranged elements in his version of the periodic table.
He put them in order of atomic mass. To keep elements with similar properties in the same vertical groups he had to swap one or two elements round and leave a few gaps for undiscovered elements
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5.How many electrons would you expect an element in group 7 to have in its outer shell?
7
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6.What's the maximum number of electrons that each of the first three electron shells will hold?
2,8,8
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7.The proton number of aluminium is 13. What is its electronic structure?
Atomic no=13 Mass no=27 P=13 E=13 N=14 Electronic structure=2,8,3
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8.What is an ion?
Ions form when atoms (or group of atoms) gain or lose electrons
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9.Why does magnesium form ions with a 2+ charge, while sodium only forms ions with a 1+charge?
Magnesium forms ions with a 2+charge as 2 electrons are lost, meaning there are more protons making it positively charged. Also it is a Group 2 element, which forms 2+ions, whereas sodium is in Group 1 so forms 1+ions.
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10.Explain why ionic compounds conduct electricity when they're molten, but not when they're solid.
Because, when an ionic compound melts, the ions are free to move and will carry an electric current
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11.Describe how a covalent bond forms.
When non-metal atoms combine together they form covalent bonds by sharing pairs of electrons in order to make a full outer shell
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12.Why do simple molecular substances have low melting and boiling points?
Because the molecules are easily parted from each other as the forces of attraction between these molecules are very weak
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13.List three typical properties of giant covalent structures.
High melting and boiling points, don't conduct electricity, have no charged ions
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14.Name three substances that have a giant covalent structure.
Diamond, graphite, graphene
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15.Name the type of molecules that plastics are made from.
Monomers
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16.List three typical properties of metals that are due to their metallic bonding.
Have high melting and boiling points, they're strong, they're good conductors of heat and electricity
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17.Out of the four main types of structure (ionic,simple covalent, giant covalent and metallic), which one is most likely to have a low melting point?
Simple covalent
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18.In chemistry, what is meant by the term 'a pure substance'?
A substance is pure if it's completely made up of a single element or compound
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19.Does adding an impurity to a substance raise or lower its boiling point?
Lower
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20.List the equipment that you would need to do a fractional distillation in the lab.
Thermometer, fractioning column, condenser, test tubes, round bottomed flask
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21.What purification technique should you use to obtain a pure sample of a soluble solid from a solution?
Crystallisation
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22.In chromatography, what do the terms 'mobile phase' and 'stationary phase' mean?
Mobile phase=where the molecules can move-always a liquid or a gas. Stationary phase=where the molecules can't move-can be a solid or a really thick liquid
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23.Describe the method for separating a mixture by thin-layer chromatography.
Draw a line with pencil near the bottom of the plate.Put a spot of mixture on the line.Dip the bottom of the plate into the solvent in a beaker.Put a watch glass over the beaker to stop solvent evaporating.Watch the chemicals in the sample separate
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24.How do you calculate the Rf value of a substance from a chromatogram?
Rf= distance travelled by solute (divided by) distance travelled by solvent
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25.What is meant by the 'relative atomic mass' of an element?
The average mass of one atom of the element, compared to 1/12 of the mass of one atom of carbon-12
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26.How do you work out the relative formula mass of a compound?
Relative formula mass= all of the relative atomic masses in its formula added together. E.g. MgCl2= Mg+(2xCl)=24.3+(2x35.5)=24.3+71=95.3 so the Mr of MgCl2= 95.3
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27.What is the empirical formula of a compound?
An empirical formula of a compound tells you the smallest whole number ratio of atoms in the compound
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

2.Describe the gold foil experiment carried out by Rutherford, Geiger and Marsden.

Back

They fired positively charged alpha particles at an extremely thin sheet of gold, but whilst most particles went straight through some were deflected more than expected, so Rutherford came up the theory of the nuclear atom

Card 3

Front

3.What are isotopes?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

4.Outline how Mendeleev arranged elements in his version of the periodic table.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

5.How many electrons would you expect an element in group 7 to have in its outer shell?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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