Chemistry - C1

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: L_Georgie
  • Created on: 03-03-16 17:08
What was the Earth's surface like originally?
Earth's surface was originally molten for many years.
1 of 41
How was the atmosphere formed?
The earth cooled and a thin crust formed. volcanoes kept erupting and released gasses including Carbon Dioxide, Water vapour and Nitrogen.
2 of 41
What was the early atmosphere like?
It contained lots of Carbon dioxide and water vapour and contained virtually no oxygen.
3 of 41
How did the oceans form?
Oceans formed when the water vapour condensed when the earth cooled.
4 of 41
How did the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere reduce?
A lot of the carbon dioxide got dissolved back into the oceans and when plants evolved they took carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere for photosynthesis.
5 of 41
How did plants help produce more oxygen for the atmosphere?
When the plants photosynthesised they took carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and put oxygen into the atmosphere.
6 of 41
What happens to the carbon when plants die?
They are buried under layer of sediment and the carbon taken out of the air becomes locked up under the sediment.
7 of 41
what happened to the simple organisms when more oxygen built up in the atmosphere?
Some simple organisms were killed off as they couldn't tolerate the extra oxygen. Others evolved into more complex organisms.
8 of 41
Name the gasses that make up the atmosphere and there percentages?
Nitrogen 78% Oxygen 21% Argon 1%. There are also other gases like water vapour.
9 of 41
What is a pollutant?
A pollutant is a chemical that is harmful because it is in the 'wrong' place.
10 of 41
What is the difference between pollutant gasses that are directly harmful and indirectly harmful?
A directly harmful pollutant can cause disease or death if you breathe in large quantities. indirectly harmful pollutants damage the environment which causes problems for humans.
11 of 41
What happens during a chemical reaction?
The atoms in the reactants get rearranged into new chemicals (The products)
12 of 41
What elements do the majority of fuel contain?
Carbon and hydrogen (hydrocarbons)
13 of 41
What is a hydrocarbon?
A compound that contains only hydrogen and carbon.
14 of 41
What is the only difference between different types of fuel? (Petrol and diesel)
The only difference is the size of hydrocarbons that they contain.
15 of 41
Why is coal different to other types of fuel?
Coal is not a hydrocarbon, it just contains mostly carbon.
16 of 41
What happens when a hydrocarbon burns?
the hydrogen atoms combine with oxygen atoms in the air to make water (hydrogen oxide) and the carbon atoms combine with the oxygen atoms to make carbon dioxide.
17 of 41
What is a reaction where oxygen is added called?
An oxidation reaction.
18 of 41
What is a reaction where oxygen is lost called?
A Reduction reaction.
19 of 41
What is the difference between hydrocarbons burning in air and burning in pure oxygen/
The hydrocarbons burn more rapidly in the pure oxygen and reaches higher tempretures.
20 of 41
What happens if fuel is burnt where there's lots of oxygen?
Nearly all the carbon ends up as carbon dioxide. This carbon dioxide then gets released back into the atmosphere.
21 of 41
What happens if fuel is burnt where there's not a lot of oxygen?
Small amounts of carbon monoxide is produced and small particles of carbon are produced as well.
22 of 41
How is carbon dioxide taken back out of the atmosphere?
Though plants when they photosynthesise and carbon dioxide also gets dissolved in rain water and seas, rivers and lakes.
23 of 41
What is it called when fuels produce carbon monoxide when burnt?
Incomplete burning.
24 of 41
What is a particulate of carbon?
They are tiny particles of carbon that are produced when fuels burn incompletely.
25 of 41
What happens to the carbon particulates in the atmosphere?
They float around until they eventually fall back down onto buildings and make them look dirty. (soot)
26 of 41
Why is sulfur sometimes produced when fuel burns?
Fuels like coal often contain impurities like the element sulfur because they are dug straight out of the ground then when they burn the fuel the sulfur is also burnt.
27 of 41
What gas is produced because of the sulfur being burnt?
Sulfur dioxide.
28 of 41
What happens to sulfur dioxide when it escapes into the atmosphere?
It reacts with the moisture in clouds forming dilute sulfuric acid. Eventually it will fall as acid rain.
29 of 41
What effects does acid rain have on the environment?
Acid rain causes lakes to become acidic which kills plants and animals. It also kills trees and damages buildings and statues made from some kinds of stone like limestone.
30 of 41
How does nitrogen pollution occur?
In car engines the fossil fuels burn at such high temperatures that the nearby atoms in the air react with each other so the nitrogen in the air reacts with the oxygen which is also in the air.
31 of 41
How is nitrogen monoxide produced?
When the nitrogen and oxygen particles in the air react at high temperatures leaving just nitrogen monoxide.
32 of 41
How is nitrogen dioxide produced?
Once the nitrogen monoxide is in the air it will react with more oxygen to produce nitrogen dioxide.
33 of 41
What happens to nitrogen dioxide once in the atmopshere?
Like sulfur it reacts with moisture in clouds and produces dilute nitric acid which eventually falls to the earth as acid rain.
34 of 41
How can sulfur dioxide be removed from flue gasses?
By reacting it with an alkali (A process called wet scrubbing)
35 of 41
What two types of alkali can be used for wet scrubbing?
Seawater and an alkaline slurry e.g. calcium oxide in water.
36 of 41
What do catalytic converters do in cars?
They convert nitrogen monoxide into just nitrogen and oxygen. And they convert carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide by adding oxygen.
37 of 41
What are biofuels?
Biofuels are renewable energy resources made from plants and waste.
38 of 41
What do biofuels produce when burned?
Carbon dioxide and water.
39 of 41
Why are biofuels regarded as being carbon neutral?
They are regarded as being carbon neutral because the plants that are used take in as much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere than is given out by burning the fuel.
40 of 41
Why are electric cars not renewable?
Because they use electricity and you have to burn fossil fuels to make that electricity in the first place.
41 of 41

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How was the atmosphere formed?

Back

The earth cooled and a thin crust formed. volcanoes kept erupting and released gasses including Carbon Dioxide, Water vapour and Nitrogen.

Card 3

Front

What was the early atmosphere like?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How did the oceans form?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How did the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere reduce?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all C1 - Air quality resources »