Chemistry- Atoms and elements

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  • Created by: Kitsune
  • Created on: 28-06-16 19:35
What is an atom?
Smallest particle in nature that can't be broken down further by chemical means
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What does an atom consist of?
Protons, neutrons, electrons and electron shells
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What is the number of protons called?
Atomic number
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What is the number of protons and neutrons called?
Nucleon or mass number
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What is an element?
It is made from only one type of atom
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What are isotopes?
Atoms of the same element with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
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Why do isotopes have same chemical properties?
They have the same number of outer shell electrons
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What two types of isotopes are there?
Radioactive and non-radioactive
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Why are radioactive isotopes dangerous?
They cause radiation sickness in big doses and cancer in small doses over a long period of time
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Is decay a definite process
No, it is random
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How are radioactive isotopes used?
IN INDUSTRY: to check for leans and as fuels in nuclear power stations IN MEDICINE: to cure cancer and to kill germs and bacteria
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What is carbon dating?
Our bodies contain carbon-14 which continues to decay after we die, so by measuring radioactivity from the body scientists can track its age
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Where are the electrons arranged?
In shells
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How many electrons can each shell hold?
1st- 2, 2nd-8, 3rd-18 but fills up till 8 then 2 go to 4th then the rest of the 3rd fills up
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What is the period number equal to?
Number of shells
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How are the outer shell electrons called?
Valency electrons
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What is the group number equals to?
Number of valency electrons
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Why do same group elements have similar reactions?
Same number of valency electrons
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Do Group 8 elements react?
No, they have full outer shells so they are stable
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About how many elements are metals? (%)
80%
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What are the properties of metals
High melting and boiling points, hard, strong ,conductors, shine, sonorous, malleable and ductile
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What are the properties of non-metals?
Low melting and boiling points, brittle, dull, break up if struck, don't conduct
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What are some exceptions to the general properties of metals and non-metals?
Hydrogen forms cations, carbon can be strong and can conduct, not all metals are strong and hard
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What is the most widely used metal?
Iron
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does an atom consist of?

Back

Protons, neutrons, electrons and electron shells

Card 3

Front

What is the number of protons called?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the number of protons and neutrons called?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is an element?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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