Chemistry- Acids, bases and salts

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  • Created by: Kitsune
  • Created on: 07-07-16 08:16
Why are acids dangerous?
They are corrosive
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Acids turn litmus....
Red
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Give three examples of weak acids
Citric acid (lemon, lime), methanol acid (ant stings), carbonic acid (fizzy drinks)
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How to neutralise an ant string?
Rub on backing soda
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Alkalis turn litmus...
Blue
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What are alkalis?
Soluble bases
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What is an indicator?
It indicates whether something is an acid or an alkali
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What are the three important indicators?
Litmus, methyl orange, phenolphthalein
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What is the colour change in methyl orange?
Acid- red, alkali- yellow
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What is the colour change in phenolphthalein?
Acid- colourless, alkali- pink
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Give examples of neutral substances
Water, sugar, aq. sodium chloride
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What is a universal indicator?
A mixture of dyes
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What pH is an alkaline solution?
>7
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What does a compound do to give an acid?
Dissociate into ions
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What makes an acid acidic?
Presence oh H+ ions
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What are the properties of strong acids?
They have high conductivity and low pH
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What are the properties of weak acids?
Lower conductivity and higher pH
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What is the difference between strong and weak acids?
In strong acids all the molecules dissociate into ions
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Why do strong acids conduct electricity better?
Because there are more ions present
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The higher the concentration of H+ ions the ... the pH
Lower
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What makes an alkali alkaline?
The presence of OH- ions
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What are the properties of weak alkalis?
Lower conductivity and lower pH
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What are the properties of strong alkalis?
High conductivity and high pH
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What is the difference between strong and weak alkalis?
In strong alkalis all molecules dissociate into ions
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The higher the concentration of OH- ions the ... the pH
Higher
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What are the typical reactions of acids?
1. Acid+metal= salt+ hydrogen 2. Acid+base= salt+water 3. Acid+carbonate= salt+water+carbon dioxide
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What are the typical reactions of bases?
1. Base+acid= salt+water 2. Base+ ammonium salt= salt+water+ammonia
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What is neutralisation?
A reaction with acid that gives water and salt
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What causes the acidity in soil?
Overuse of fertilisers and rotting vegetation
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Why is acidic soil dangerous?
Plants grow best at pH 7 so many will die
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With what is acidic soil treated?
Crushed limestone (CaCO3), lime (CaO), slaked lime (Ca(OH)2)
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What happens during neutralisation with the ions?
H+ ions combine with OH- ions to form water
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What s an H+ ion called?
A proton
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What are acids?
Proton donors
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What are bases?
Proton acceptors
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What are oxides?
Compounds containing oxygen and other metals
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What types of oxides are there? Give examples
Basic NaOH, acidic SO4, amphoteric Al2O3, neutral CO
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What are the three ways of making salts
1. Acid+metal 2. Acid+base 3. Acid+alkali
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Why don't we add very reactive metals to acids but their hydroxides?
It is dangerous to add a very reactive metal
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What is titration?
One reactant is slowly added to another in the presence of an indicator
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Why do we redo the experiment without an indicator?
It is an impurity
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Which salts are insoluble?
Silver and lead chloride; calcium, barium and lead sulphate; carbonates, except Na, K and NH4
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How are insoluble salts made?
By precipitation
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What do you need to precipitate an insoluble salt?
Mix a solutions that contains its positive ions with the solution that contains its negative ions
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What are the uses of precipitation?
Coloured pigments for paint, removing harmful substances from water, film photography
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What are spectator ions?
They don't take part in the reaction but are present
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By what process can you find concentration?
By titration
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What happens to weak acids during titration?
They dissociate fully
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Acids turn litmus....

Back

Red

Card 3

Front

Give three examples of weak acids

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How to neutralise an ant string?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Alkalis turn litmus...

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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