Chemistry - Acids, Bases and Salts

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  • Created by: becky.65
  • Created on: 10-12-15 19:22
What are acids?
Substances that produce hydrogen ions, H (aq), when they are added to water
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What does a weak acid mean?
That the acid is partially ionised in water
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What happens when bases react with acids?
They neutralise them
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What are alkalis?
Bases that dissolve in water and produce hydroxide ions, OH (aq), in the solution
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What metals will acids react with?
Ones that are above hydrogen in the reactivity series
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When metals react with acids, what do they produce?
A salt and hydrogen gas
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What is the general formula for a metal reacting with an acid?
acid + metal -----> a salt + hydrogen
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What are metal oxides and metal hydroxides?
Bases
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What happens when an acid reacts with a base?
A neutralisation reaction takes place and a salt and water are produced
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What is the general formula for a base reacting with an acid?
acid + base ----> a salt + water
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How can we make salt from a metal or a base?
1) Add a metal or a base that is insoluble in water, a little at a time, until all the acid has reacted. 2) The solution is then filtered to remove the excess solid reactant. 3)The solid salt is made when the water is evaporated
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What are chlorides,nitrates and sulfates made from?
Chlorides = hydrochloric acid, HCl Nitrates = nitric acid, HNO3 Sulfates = sulfuric acid, H2SO4
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How can we make soluble salts?
By reacting an acid and an alkali
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What is the general formula for an acid reacting with an alkali?
acid + alkali ----> salt + water
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What is the ionic equation for a neutralisation reaction?
H (aq) + OH (aq) ----> H2O(l)
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How can we make insoluble salt?
By mixing solutions of soluble salts that contain the ions needed
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What does lead iodide form?
It forms a precipitate that can be filtered from the solution, washed with distilled water and dried
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What are the two solutions that are mixed to make ammonium nitrate?
Nitric acid and ammonia
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What do all carbonates produce when they react with acids?
A salt, water and carbon dioxide gas
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Give an example of a carbonate reacting with an acid
calcium carbonate + hydrochloric acid ---> calcium chloride + water + carbon dioxide
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Why is limestone damaged by acid rain?
Because the calcium carbonate in the limestone reacts with the acid in the rain
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What is calcium hydroxide solution called?
Limewater
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Why does limewater turn cloudy when it is reacted with carbon dioxide?
Because it produces insoluble calcium carbonate
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What is the word equation for the carbon dioxide reacting with limewater?
calcium hydroxide + carbon dioxide ----> calcium carbonate + water
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What happens to call metal carbonates when they are heated strongly enough?
They decompose to the metal oxide and carbon dioxide
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What is the reaction of metal carbonates decomposing into the metal oxide and carbon dioxide called?
Thermal decomposition
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What does a weak acid mean?

Back

That the acid is partially ionised in water

Card 3

Front

What happens when bases react with acids?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are alkalis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What metals will acids react with?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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