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Metals of low reactivity are sometimes found native
Native- found as the metal itself
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Most metals are found in rocks called ores
Ores contain enough metal to make it economical to extract the metal
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The economics of extraction may change over time
Ores- naturally occurring solids
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The method used to extract a metal from it's ore depends on it's position in the reactivity series
Metals of medium reactivity can be extracted by reduction with carbon (coke)
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Metal oxide + carbon = metal+ carbon dioxide
We get copper metal by- electrolysis of copper salt solutions
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We get copper by- smelting copper ores
Smelting- the metal oxide is reduced using the element carbon/ loss of oxygen
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We get copper by- recycling old copper items
Electrolysis- the metal compound is heated the electricity is passed through it
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We get copper by- displacement using scrap iron
Displacement- use a more reactive metal to reduce the copper compound
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We get copper by- phytomining
Phytomining- plants grow on low grade copper ores brown sites
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We get copper by- bio-leaching copper ores using bacteria
Bio-leaching- bacteria absorbs the copper compound and then produces a substance containing the copper
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Phytomining and bio-leaching are new techniques that extract copper from low grade ores but are slow and less reliable
Metals that are more reactive than carbon, such as aluminium and titanium are extracted by electrolysis of molten compounds
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The process has many stages and uses a lot of energy
Corrosion is the destruction of materials by chemical reactions with substances in the environment e.g. rusting is the corrosion of iron by air and water
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Iron+ oxygen+ water= hydrated iron oxide
Rusting can be prevented by a physical barrier e.g. paint or chemical methods e.g. sacrificial protection by a more reactive metal
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The transition metals are typical metals
They often form coloured compounds less Group 1 metals are more reactive than transition metals because they lose electrons more easily
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Card 2

Front

Ores contain enough metal to make it economical to extract the metal

Back

Most metals are found in rocks called ores

Card 3

Front

Ores- naturally occurring solids

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Metals of medium reactivity can be extracted by reduction with carbon (coke)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

We get copper metal by- electrolysis of copper salt solutions

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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