chemistry

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what substances are shown in the periodic table?
elements
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what atom does H represent?
hydrogen
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what type of substante is sodium chloride,NaCl?
a compound
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why are atoms neutral?
because there are the same number of electrons than protons
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how many protons, electron and neutrons are there in an atom of aluminium?
13 protons, 13 electrons and 14 neutrons
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explain why nitrogen and phosphorus are both in group 5 in the periodic table?
both have 5 electrons in outer shell
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name an example of a compound with ionic bonds?
sodium chloride/magnesium oxide
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calcium chloride has the formula CaCl2.What does this tell you about the compound?
made of one calcium ion for every two chloride ion
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the formula of propane is C3H8.What does this tell you about propane?
its made from 3 carbon atoms and 8 hydrogen atoms
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explain fully about what is balenced in the symbol equation: Mg+2HCl--> MgCl2+H
magnesium reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce magnesium chloride and hydrogen
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balance the equation: Na+O--> Na2O
4Na+O2-->2Na2O
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list ways in which limestone and products made from limestone are used in building?
building blocks,to make calcium oxide, to make cement
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what are the products when zinc carbonate is heated strongly?
zinc oxide are carbon dioxide
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what is the word equestion for the reaction of magnesium carbonate with hydrochloric acid?
magnesium carbonate+hydrochloric acid--> magnesium chloride+carbon dioxide+water
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what are the three word equestions for the limestone cycle?
1.calcium carbonate--> calcium oxide+carbon dioxide .2.calcium oxide+water--> calcium hydroxide .3.calcium hydroxide+carbon dioxide--> calcium carbonate+water
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what is the difference between cement,mortar and concrete?
cement is made of limestone and clay.mortar is cement mixed with sand.concreat is cement mixed with sand
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what are three advantages for limestone quarying?
more employment opportunities,improved roads,more customers
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what is an ore?
rock from which metal can be extracted economically
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name two metals that have oxides that can be reduced by carbon?
zinc,iron,tin,lead,copper (any two are alloud)
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why does iron from the blast furnace have only a few uses?
it is brittle
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why are steels more useful than pure iron?
they are harder
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why is it expensive to extract aluminium from its ore?
requires alot of energy
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why is titanium a very useful metal for making aircraft engines?
it is strong ,resists corrosion and has a low density
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why are new ways of extracting copper being researched?
high grade ores are limited or running out
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what three ways can be used to produce copper metal from its compound
smelting,electrolysis,displacment
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what properties make transition metals useful materials for making things?
strong,good conductor of heat and energy
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what properties are needed for electrical wiring?
can be bent,not brittle
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why is gold used for wedding rings mixed with other metals?
makes it harder
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why should we recycle aluminium cans?
save energy,resourses,fossil fuels,land
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what are fractions?
liquids with different boiling ranges seperated from a mixture of liquids
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how can you tell that the substance with the formula C5H12 is an alkane?
it is a seperated compound
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what is the molecular formula of butane?
C4H10
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why are different hydrocarbons collected at different levels of a fractional distillation column?
different hydrocarbons have different boiling points
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what properties would you expect for a fraction that is collected one-third of the way up a fractionating colum?
medium-high boiling(about 250),quite viscous
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name 4 possible products of the incomplete combustion of a hydrocarbon?
carbon monoxide,carbon,unburnt hydrocarbon, water
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what environmental problem is caused by sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide?
acid rain
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name the product of incomplete combustion that scientists believe caused global dimming?
particulates
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what two methods are used to reduce the amount of sulfur dioxide produced by burning fuels?
remove sulfur dioxide from watse gases
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give 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of hydrogen as a fuel?
no pollotion(advantage) requires large amount of energy(disadvantage)
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give one reason why an oil company might want to crack large hydrocarbons to make smaller alkanes?
to make fuels that are more useful
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how are polymers made?
from many small molecules or monomers that react or join together
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what is a shape-memory polymer?
a type of smart polymer
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describe the two ways that cornstartch can be used to help with problems of disposal of plastic waste?
it can be added added to plastics made from non-biogradable polymers so they break down into small pieces
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what two methods are used to extract vegetable oils?
pressing and distillastion
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why are vegetables oils important foods?
they provide energy and nutrients
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what is the difference between unstaturated fats and saturated?
saturated have a single bond and unsaturated have a double bond
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what is ment by hardening vegetable oils?
During hydrogenation, vegetable oils are hardened by reacting them with hydrogen gas at about 60ºC.
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what is an emulsifier?
substance that stops oils and water from seperating
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how can you reconise an emulsion?
cannot see through them
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why causes tectonic plates to move?
convection currents caused by heating of the mantel
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why can scientists not predict when and where an earthquake will happen?
we do not know enough about what is happening inside the earth
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why were wegner's ideas not accepted for many years
he couldnt explain why the continents moved
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where did most of the C02,N and H20 vapour in the earths early atmosphere come from?
plants(photosynthesis)
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why are we not sure about how life began?
there is not evidence
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why can the gasses in the air be seperated by fractional distillation?
its a mixture of different substances
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name two processes that release carbon dioxide into the stmosphere and two processes that remove it from the atmosphere?
respiration and decay
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Card 2

Front

what atom does H represent?

Back

hydrogen

Card 3

Front

what type of substante is sodium chloride,NaCl?

Back

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Card 4

Front

why are atoms neutral?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

how many protons, electron and neutrons are there in an atom of aluminium?

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