chemistry

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  • Created by: NicoleAD
  • Created on: 04-05-16 22:23
define electronegativity
The ability to attract the bonding electrons in a covalent bond.
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Define covalent bond
This is when two atoms share a pair of electrons
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Define Ionic bonding
this is when one of the atoms donates on of its electrons to another atom
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what is meant by incomplete combustion
this is when a fuel combusts however there is no oxygen present so only carbon monoxide and carbon are produced
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what is meant by complete combustion
this is when a fuel combusts in an environment where there is plenty of oxygen available
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How is bleach produced
mix chloine gas along with sodium hydroxide solution, this forms sodium chlorate solution.
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what is produced when we mix chlorine and water
chlorate and chloride ions.
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how do we treat water
we use chlorine in order to disinfect water to allow us to drink and swim in it.
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what are the health hazzards of long exposure to chlorine
skin burns and rashes, respiratory problems and possibley death.
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what happens when we mix chlorine and water, what sort of reaction is this?
This is a disproportionation reaction.
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name the most electronegative halogen.
Fluorine
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describe the saturation test
the saturation test is to differ between alkenes and alkanes, we mix our sample with bromine water if it goes colourless then we know that an alkene is present, if it stays brown/orange then its an alkane.
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name three products of the reaction between sodium hydroxide and chlorine
sodium chloride ions,sodium chlorate ions and water
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define the molecular formula
the molecular formula gives the actual number of atoms of each element in a molecule
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define the structural formula
this shows the chain carbon by carbon, shows all of the functional groups and any attached hydrogens
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define the displayed formula
the displayed formula is showing all of the bonds between the atoms, as well as how the atoms are arranged.
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define the skeletal formula
this shows just the carbon chain, with only any functional groups.
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what is the homologous series
family of compounds that have the same functional group, similar chemical properties and the same general formula. They differ by CH2.
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what is the general formula
algebraic formula that describes any member of a family of compounds.
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whate is the general formula for an alkane
CnH2n+2
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what is the general formula for a cycloalkane
CnH2n
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what is the general formula for an alkene
CnH2n
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what is the general formula for an alcohol
CnH2n+1OH
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what is the name for the carbon side chain containing two carbon atoms?
ethyl
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what does the R represent in the general formula
this will represent the variable group
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which two homologous series have the same general formula?
cycloalkane and alkenes
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define chain isomers
same functional group, different arrangement of the carbon skeleton
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define the structural isomer
same molecular formula different structural formula
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define position isomer
same skeleton, same atoms attached. Different carbons will have the group of atoms attached to.
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define the functional group isomer
same atoms arranged into different functional groups.
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define stereoisomer
same structural formula, however atoms are arranged differently in space.
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What is an E-isomer
This is when the matching groups are across the double bond from each other
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what is a Z-isomer
This is when the matching groups are on the same side of the double bond.
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What are the conditions for thermal cracking?
very high temperatures roughly 1000 degrees celsius, very high pressures around 60 ATM.
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What are the products of thermal cracking?
produces alot of alkenes
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What are the conditions for catalytic cracking?
slight pressure about 2-3ATM, high temperatures at around 500 degrees celsius and a aluminosilicate zeolite catalyst.
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What are the products of catalytic cracking?
Aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes.
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Give three pollutants produced by vehicle exhausts.
nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide
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Describe one method for removing sulfur dioxide from flue gases.
If we were to take the gases and mix them with powdered calcium carbonate then we can create create a slurry once its mixed with water. when flue gases mix with the slurry it forms a harmless salt.
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What is a photochemical reaction?
This is a reaction which is initiated by ultravoilet light.
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what is the initiation step?
this is when free radicals are produced, ultravoilet light provides enough energy to break the Cl-Cl bond.
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What is the propagation step?
This is when free radicals are used up and createdin a chain reaction.
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What is the termination step?
This is when two free radicals combine to form a stable molecule.
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What are the halogenoalkanes?
This is an alkane with at least one halogen atom in place of the hydrogen atom.
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What is a nucleophile?
This is an electron pair donor.
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What is an electrophile?
This is an electron pair acceptor.
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what does a pair of dots on a nucleophile represent?
The pair of dots represents the lone pair of electrons.
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Explain why halogen-carbon bonds are polar.
halogens are more electronegative than carbon hence why the bond is polar.
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Briefly describe electrophilic addition reactions.
This is when the double bond opens up.
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define the term saturated.
This is when the carbon - carbon chain has no double bonds in it.
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define the term unsaturated.
This is when the carbon=carbon chain has double bonds in it.
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What are plasticisers?.
They are chemicals which we can add to a polymer in order to change their properties.
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Why can we safely take a barium meal?
This is due to it being insoluble so it willnot dissolve into our bloodstream.
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What is the general equation for the dehydration of an alcohol?
CnH2n+1OH --> H2O + CnH2n
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Briefly describle hydration of ethene.
Very fast reaction, pure and the equipment is very expensive however the labour costs are quite low.
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Briefly describe the fermentation of glucose.
the equipment is fairly cheap the labour costs however are faily high. The products are impure and the general reaction rates are very slow.
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What are the conditions for the hydration of alkenes.
300 degrees celsius, 60 ATM and phosphoric acid catalyst.
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What are the conditions for the fermentation of glucose.
30-40 degrees celsius and anaerobic conditions for the yeast.
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What type of a reaction is the fermentation of glucose?.
This is an exothermic reaction.
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What are the advantages of biofuels?.
Renewable energy resource, e.g. glucose, they are generally more sustainable. Most biofuels are considered to be carbon neutral.
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What are the disadvantages of biofuel?.
Fertilisers that farmers use can pollute water ways, eutrophication. Alot of land would be taken up just for the crop growth reducing the amount of room we have to grow crops for food.
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What are the problems with calorimetry?.
Some heat with absorbed by the container, some heat is lost to the surroundings/ combustion may be incomplete and flammable liquids could escape by evaporation.
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Define hess's law.
The total enthalpy change for a reaction is independent of the route taken.
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What is dynamic equilibrium?.
This is when the forwards reaction occurs at the same rate as the backwards reaction.
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What is Le Chateliers principle?.
If a reaction is subjected to a change in concentration pressure or temperature, the position of equilibrium will move to counteract the change.
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What is the equilibria formula?
aA +bB --> cC + dD
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What is a disproportionation reaction?.
This is when something in an equation is simultaneously oxidised and reduced.
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What is oxidation?.
This is the loss of electrons.
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What is reduction?.
This is the gain of electrons.
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What is the oxidation state of monoatomic ions?.
The charge of the ion.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define covalent bond

Back

This is when two atoms share a pair of electrons

Card 3

Front

Define Ionic bonding

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is meant by incomplete combustion

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is meant by complete combustion

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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