Chemistry

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What is an atom?
The atom is the smallest part of an element. It is made up of protons, neutrons and electrons.
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What charge do protons, neutrons and electrons have?
Protons=Positive (+1) Electrons=Negative (-1) Neutrons=Neutral (0)
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Does a neutral atom have a charge overall?
No
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How do you work out how many protons an element has?
Protons=Mass-Atomic Number
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What happens in a chemical reaction?
Bonds break, New bonds form and New substances are made
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Are atoms created or destroyed in a chemical reaction?
No
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Name 5 seperation techniques
Filtration, Distillation, Fractional Distillation, Chromatography and Evaporation
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What does crystallisation do?
Crystallisation gives chemists the purest form of their chemical
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How does filtration work?
A mixture containing insoluble solid and liquid is poured through filter paper. The liquid particles are small enough to pass through the paper as filtrate. The solid particles are too large to pass through and stay behind as residue.
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How does evaporation work?
An evaporating basin containing a mixture made up of a soluble solid and liquid. The solution is heated with a bunsen burner. Solid particles begin to form in the basin. All the water has evaporated, leaving solid crystals behind.
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How does distillation work?
A salt solution is heated. Water evaporates and the vapour rises, the water vapour passes into the condenser, where it cools and condenses. Liquid water drips into a beaker. All the water has evaporated from the salt solution, leaving the salt behind
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How does fractional distillation work?
A water and ethanol mixture is heated using an electric heater. Ethanol vapour passes into the condenser. Liquid ethanol drips into the beaker. Then liquid water drips into the beaker.
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How does chromatography work?
A pencil line is drawn, and spots of ink or plant dye are place on it. The paper is lowered into the solvent. The solvent travels up through the paper. The differnt coloured substances spread apart.
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What is contained in the nucleus of an atom?
Protons and Neutrons
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Where are the electrons found?
Around the edge
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What is in between the electrons and the nucleus?
Empty space
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How many electrons can the first shell hold?
2
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How many electrons can the shells after the first one hold?
8
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How many electrons can the last shell hold?
Depending in which group the element is in, determines how many electrons the outer shell can hold.
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What did John Dalton suggest?
Suggested atoms could be of different sizes, suggested atoms of the same type made an element, suggested you culd put different atoms together to make compounds and began to put elements into a table.
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How can you test for chlorine?
It turns blue litmus paper red and then bleaches it white.
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What is the test for hydrogen?
A lighted wooden splint makes a popping sound.
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What is the test for oxygen?
A glowing wooden splint relights
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What is the test for carbon dioxide?
A lighted wooden splint goes out.
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What is the flame test colour for barium?
Pale green
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What is the flame test colour for calcium?
Yellow/red
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What is the flame test colour for copper?
Green/blue
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What is the flame test colour for lithium?
Red
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What is the flame test colour for sodium?
Orange
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What is the flame test colour for potassium?
Lilac
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What is the flame test colour for stronthium?
Red
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What is ionic bonding?
The loss and gain of electrons
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What is covalent bonding?
The sharing of electrons
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What is metallic bonding?
The electrostatic attraction between metal ions in the lattice structure
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What do covalent bonds consist of?
Small molecules (only a few)
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Name some properties of simple covalent bonds
Low melting and boiling points. Typically liquid or gas at room temperature. Strong covalent bonds within the molecule, but only weak intermolecular forces between molecules.
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Name some properties of the Giant ionic lattice
Regular arrangement. High melting and boiling point
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Name 4 giant covalent structures
Diamond, Silicon Dioxide, Graphite and Fullereness
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What does this state symbol mean: (s) ?
Solid
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What does this state symbol mean: (l) ?
Liquid
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What does this state symbol mean: (g) ?
Gas
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What does this state symbol mean: (aq) ?
Aqueous, dissolved in water
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What does OH mean?
Hydroxide aqueous
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What is a polymer?
A long chain moleculethat is made up of lots of small molecules that have been chained together. The small molecules that have been linked together are called monomers.
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When is a low density polythene formed?
Formed at very high pressures with trace amounts of oxygen. Polymer chains are branched, making them hard to pack together
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When is a high density polythene formed?
Formed at lower pressures and using a catalyst at 50°C. Polymer chains are straighter, allowing them to pack closer together
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What two kinds of polymers are there?
Thermosoftening and Thermosetting
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What charge do protons, neutrons and electrons have?

Back

Protons=Positive (+1) Electrons=Negative (-1) Neutrons=Neutral (0)

Card 3

Front

Does a neutral atom have a charge overall?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How do you work out how many protons an element has?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens in a chemical reaction?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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