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First ionisation energy
The energy required to remove one electron from each atom (of an element) in one mole of gaseous atoms from one mole of gaseous 1+ ions
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Electron shielding
The repulsion between electrons in different inner shells. Shielding reduces the net attractive force from the positive nucleus on the outer shell electrons
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Successive ionisation energies
The measure of energy required to remove each electron in turn. Eg second ionisation energy of an element is the energy required to remove an electron from each ion in one mole of gaseous 1+ ions to form one mole of gaseous 2+ ions.
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A groups of atomic orbitals with the same principal number, n.
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Principal quantum number
A number representing the relative overall energy of each orbital, which increase with distance from the nucleus.
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Atomic orbital
A region within an atom that can hold up to 2 electrons, with opposite spins.
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A group of the same type of atomic orbitals (s, p, d, or f) within a shell
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Electron configuration
The arrangement of electrons in an atom.
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A substance formed from 2 or more chemically bonded elements in a fixed ratio.
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Ionic Bond
The electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions.
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Giant ionic lattice
A 3-D structure of oppositely charged ions, held together by strong ionic bonds.
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A vertical column in the Periodic Table, with elements of similar properties and the same number of outer shell electrons.
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Covalent Bond
Arises from the electrostatic attraction between two nuclei and a bonded pair of electrons that lie between these nuclei
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Lone pair
An outer shell pair of electrons that is not involved in chemical bonding
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Dative Covalent Bond (Coordinate)
A shared pair of electrons which has been provided by one of the bonding atoms only.
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A measure of the attraction of a bonded atom for the pair of electrons in a covalent bond
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Permanent dipole
A small charge difference across a bond that results from the difference in electronegativity of the bonded atoms
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Polar covalent bond
A permanent dipole
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Intermolecular Force
An attractive force between neighbouring molecules.
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Permanent dipole-dipole
A weak attractive force between permanent dipole in neighbouring molecules.
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Van der Waal’s forces
Attractive forces between induced dipoles in neighbouring molecules.
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Hydrogen bond
A strong dipole-dipole attraction between an electron deficient hydrogen in one molecule and a lone pair of electrons on a highly electronegative atom in a different molecule.
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Metallic bonding
Electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions and delocalised electrons
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Delocalised electrons
Electrons that are shared between more than 2 atoms
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Giant Metallic lattice
3-D Structure of positive ions and delocalised electrons bonded together by strong metallic bonds
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Simple molecular lattice
3-D structure of molecules bonded together by weak intermolecular forces
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Giant Molecular lattice
3-D structure of atoms, bonded together by strong covalent bonds
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Card 2


Electron shielding


The repulsion between electrons in different inner shells. Shielding reduces the net attractive force from the positive nucleus on the outer shell electrons

Card 3


Successive ionisation energies


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Card 4




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Card 5


Principal quantum number


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