bonding q's for chem

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what is meant by a Dative Covalent Bond?
When an atom provides both electrons in a bond
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What is Ionic Bonding?
When a metal & non-metal join together due to electrostatic attraction between the oppositely charged ions
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What is the 3 types of IMF?
Hydrogen bonding, Van Der Waals forces & Permanent Dipole-Dipole
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What is the structure for diamond?
each carbon atom covalently bonded to 4 other carbons and is arranged in a tetrahedral shape
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what is the structure of graphite?
it carbon atoms are covalently bonded to 3 other carbon atoms, arranged in flat sheets and the carbons are arranged in hexagons
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The formula of the common compound ions: Nitrate, sulfate, Hydroxide, Carbonate & Ammonium
Nitrate= NO3- Sulfate=SO4 2- Hydroxide=OH- Carbonate=CO3 2- Ammonium=NH4+
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What is a covalent bond?
a shared pair of electrons between 2 atoms
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What is metallic bonding?
the attraction between delocalised electrons (negatively charged) and positive ions arranged in a lattice.
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The 4 Types of Crystal structure?
1) ionic. 2) metallic. 3)macromolecular (Giant covalent) 4) molecular
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Define Electronegativity?
Power of an atom to attract the pair of electrons in a covalent bond
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If a molecules' atoms have different electronegativities?
The electron distribution will be unsymmetrical & it will produce a polar covalent bond and may lead to a molecule having a permanent dipole
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If atoms in a molecule have same electronegativities?
if they are the same they will cancel out and there will be no polar bond created
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What do electron pairs do to minimise repulsion?
Pairs of electrons in the outer shells arrange themselves as far away as possible from each to minimise repulsion
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Hydrogen Bonding- can only happen between hydrogen and?
oxygen, nitrogen & fluorine
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What is permanent dipole-dipole?
2 moecules attracted to each other that both have permanent dipoles
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What is a Dipole and what does it cause?
A dipole is a difference in charge between 2 atoms and it causes a shift in electron density in the bond
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Where are Van Der Waals forces present?
Between ALL molecules!!
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what is graphene?
A single layer of Graphite, conducts electricity really well, has unique properties, flexible but harder than diamond
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What is a Temporary Dipole?
uneven distribution of eletrons in a molecule- slightly more on one side than the other creates temp dipole. They appear/disappear constantly & last for a short time
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Does Metallic Bonding allow conductivity?
Y, delocalised electrons pass KE to each other, so good conductors as current can flow
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Is the m.p high/low in Metallic Bonding?
H. strong electrostatic attraction between delocalised electrons and +ive metal ions hard to overcome. more delocalised electrons= stronger the bonding
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Does Metallic Bonding have any shaping abilities?
Y. as no bonds holding specific ions together, so layers can slide over each other
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What are simple ions?
Ions that lose/ gain 1,2/3 electrons
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Ions are formed when?
Electrons transferred from 1 atom to another
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Solubility of an Ionic Compound?
dissolves in H2O as the H2O is polar so it pulls ions away from the lattice and dissolves it
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Conductivity of an Ionic Compound?
When molten/aq- as ions free to move & carry current. cant when in fixed positions by strong ionic bonds
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M.P of an Ionic Compound?
H. held by strong electrostatic forces takes up a lot of energy overcoming forces
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what does sublime mean?
means the substance changes straight from a solid to gas (missing out the liquid stage)
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what does delocalised mean?
an electron that is not attached to a particular atom-it can move between atoms
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once a coordinate bond is formed- what is its difference to a normal covalent
there is NO difference!!
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a lone pair of electrons is?
is a pair of electrons in the outer shell of an atom that isn't involved in bonding with other atoms
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Card 2


What is Ionic Bonding?


When a metal & non-metal join together due to electrostatic attraction between the oppositely charged ions

Card 3


What is the 3 types of IMF?


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Card 4


What is the structure for diamond?


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Card 5


what is the structure of graphite?


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