Chemistry 4.2 - Structure and Bonding

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  • Created by: MaxR1
  • Created on: 12-05-18 13:38
What are the 3 types of bonds?
Ionic bond, Covalent bond and Metallic bond
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Define Ion
An atom that has gained or lost electrons
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***Insert ionic bond diagram***
Ionic Bond
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***Insert Covalent bond diagram***
Covalent Bond
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***Insert metallic bond diagram***
Metallic Bond
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Where does ionic bonding occur?
In compounds formed from metals combined with non-metals.
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Where does covalent bonding occur?
In most non-metallic elements and in compounds of non-metals.
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Where does metallic bonding occur?
In metallic elements and alloys.
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What is an ionic bond?
A strong electrostatic force of attraction between the positive metal ion and the negative non-metal ion.
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What is the general pattern for ionic bonds?
When a metal atom reacts with a non-metal atom electrons in the outer shell of the metal atom are transferred. Metal atoms lose electrons to become positively charged ions. Non-metal atoms gain electrons to become negatively charged ions.
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What are the properties of ionic compounds?
They have high melting/boiling points, do NOT conduct electricity when solid as the ions cannot move, and DO conduct electricity when molten or in solution, as the charged ions are free to move.
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Why do ionic compounds have high melting/boiling points?
Ionic bonds are very strong and it requires a lot of energy to overcome.
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Sodium Chloride Diagram
** Insert Diagram **
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What is a covalent bond?
A shared pair of electrons between atoms
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What is a metallic bond?
The attraction between positive ions and delocalised electrons
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Why do giant covalent structures have high melting and boiling points?
Atoms are linked by strong covalent bonds, which are difficult to break for the substance to be melted or boiled
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What are the main properties of metals?
They have high melting/boiling points, the delocalised electrons can move freely to carry charge, so they are good thermal/electrical conductors. Pure metals tend to be soft and easily bent.
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What are the properties of alloys?
They are usually strong and harder than pure metals.
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Why are metals good conductors?
the delocalised electrons in the metal carry electrical charge through the metal. Metals are good conductors of thermal energy because energy is transferred by the delocalised electrons.
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What is the structure of diamond?
In diamond, each carbon atom forms four covalent bonds with other carbon atoms in a giant covalent structure, so diamond is very hard, has a very high melting point and does not conduct electricity as it has no charged particles.
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What is the structure of graphite?
In graphite, each carbon atom forms three covalent bonds with three other carbon atoms, forming layers of hexagonal rings which have no covalent bonds between the layers. In graphite, one electron from each carbon atom is delocalised.
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What is graphene and what are its properties?
Graphene is a single layer of graphite. It is very strong, a good thermal and electrical conductor and nearly transparent, so is useful in electronics.
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What is a fullerene?
Fullerenes are molecules of carbon atoms with hollow shapes
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Where can fullerenes be used?
Used to: Deliver drugs to the body, in lubricants, as catalysts, or reinforcing materials such as tennis rackets.
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Where can nanoparticles be used?
In medicine, in electronics, in cosmetics and sun creams, as deodorants, and as catalysts. New applications for nanoparticulate materials are an important area of research.
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What can nanoparticles form with other nanoparticles?
Nanostructures
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Why are nanoparticles used in suncream?
They provide better skin coverage, and therefore are more effective at protecting from the Sun's rays
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define Ion

Back

An atom that has gained or lost electrons

Card 3

Front

***Insert ionic bond diagram***

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

***Insert Covalent bond diagram***

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

***Insert metallic bond diagram***

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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