Chemistry 3- Organic Chemistry

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The bond of an Alkane?
Single, covalent bond between carbons
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What kind of hydrocarbon is an alkane?
Saturated
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The general equation of an alkane
C n H 2n+2
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The bond of an alkene?
Double bond between carbons
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What type of hyrdrocarbon is an alkene?
Unsaturated
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The general equation of an alkene
C n H 2n
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General equation of alcohols
C n H 2n+1 OH
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What is a functional group?
The group of atoms in an element that control the characteristics of a chemical reaction
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What can be concluded if two elements have the same functional group?
They will react similarly, in a similar way
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What is the functional group of alkenes?
Double carbon bond
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What is the functional group of alcohols?
OH group
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How many bonds from a carbon atom?
4 bonds
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How many bonds from a hydrogen atom?
1 bond
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Define an isomer
Molecules with the same molecular formula but a different structure or spacial arrangements
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What is molecular formula?
Number of atoms in each element
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Define a positional isomer
Where the functional group changes position
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Define enzymes
Globular protein catalysts that are formed from living cells
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What effect does increased temperature have on a reaction?
The atoms have increased energy, increasing the number of collisions over all and how much energy the atoms collide with. This increases the number of successful collisions overall, increasing rate of reaction.
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What is optimum temperature?
The temperature the atoms (enzymes) work best at
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What is the optimum temperature for enzymes?
Body temperature, 37 degrees
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What happens to enzymes at a temperature that is too high?
The enzymes denature and stop working
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What use enzymes in biotechnology?
Brewing, baking + milk
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What is the break down of glucose by yeast?
Fermentation
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What does fermentation produce?
Ethanol
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Define yeast
Single-celled, fungi microorganism
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What does enzyme do i a fermentation reaction?
Catalyse the break down of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide.
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What catalyst does fermentation produce?
Enzymes
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What is fermentation used for industrially?
Beer and wine
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What conditions are needed for fermentation?
Glucose solution, 20-40 degree temperature, no oxygen and 4-7 pH level
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How is ethanol extracted from the fermented mixture?
Filtered to remove yeast, then distilled
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Explain how distilling extracts just ethanol form a distilled mixture
Ethanol has a higher boiling point than water, so it evaporates and leaves the water behind. A cold condenser will allow the ethanol to condense to a liquid state and be extracted as a liquid
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Name the health problems linked to alcohol and excessive drinking
Brain damage, heart disease, cancer and liver/kidney damage
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two main problems of excessive drinking?
Liver cirrhosis and alcohol poisoning
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Explain alcohol poisoning
Gag reflex, heart rate and breathing is interfered with= choking, coma + death
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Explain liver cirrhosis
Liver scarring, long term incurable damage, new tissue cannot grow, prevents liver working efficiently and liver fails
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Alcohol social advantages
Tax on booze, income for government to spend
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Alcohol social disadvantages
Anti-social behaviour, violence, strain on the NHS and road accidents
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How can ethanol be used as a fuel
Feul crops: sugar plants, fermented to produce a bioethanol which can be used as fuel
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How is bioethanol carbon neutral?
CO2 taken in by plant when respirating, CO2 released when plant is fermented
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What are the waste products of fermentating a sugar crop or other plants?
Water and carbon dioxide
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Advantages of Bioethanol as a fuel
Renweable, reduces dependency on non renewable fossil fuel sources
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Disadvantages of ethanol as fuel
Land grabbing for fuel crops land, food poverty increase and deforestation
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Name the three elements of the fire triangle
Fuel, heat and oxygen
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How might one stop a fire?
Take away one of the elements
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How would one take away fuel from a fire?
switching electricty or gas supple, 'fire breaking' chopping down area of plant fuel
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How would one take away heat from a fire?
Adding a reduction force, water
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How would one take away oxygen from a fire?
fire blanket for a small area, CO2 powder for a indoor, chemical or electrical fires, foam
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Compare ethanoic and sulfuric acid
They react similarly but Ethanoic is weaker, and so reacts slower and less violently.
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What does ethanoic acid produce?
Ethanoate salts
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What does sulfuric acid produce?
sulfate salts
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Acid+ Alkali
Salt + water (increase in temperature for both)
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Acid + Base
Salt + water (Increase temperature, base dissolves faster with sulfuric acid)
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Acid+ carbonate
Salt + water+ CO2 (Bubbles of CO2, more with sulfuric)
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Acid + Metal
Salt + hydrogen ( Fizzing of hydrogen gas, more for sulfuric and metal reacts faster with sulfuric)
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Ethanol does not dissolve, but can be used in solvents to do what?
Make medecin and drugs, preserve biological specimens and manufacture varnishes or perfumes.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What kind of hydrocarbon is an alkane?

Back

Saturated

Card 3

Front

The general equation of an alkane

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

The bond of an alkene?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What type of hyrdrocarbon is an alkene?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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