Chemistry 2 and 3

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  • Created by: jp3louis
  • Created on: 13-06-16 19:09
How is a positive ion formed?
Atoms that loose electrons become positviely charged ions.
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How is a negative ion formed?
Atoms that gain electrons become negatively charged ions.
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What are the group 1 elements called? What charge will they have?
Alkali metals. When they react with non metals to form ionic compounds the metal ion has a positive charge.
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What are the group 7 element called? What charge will they have
Halogens. When they react with the alkali metals to form ionic compounds, the halide ions have a negative charge.
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What holds together ionic compounds?
Ionic compounds have giant ionic lattices. They have strong electrostatic forces in all directions.
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What are the properties of ionic compounds?
Can conduct electricity when dissolved or melted due to the ions are free to move, high boiling point, high melting point.
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Describe the structure of sodium chloride.
they share electrons. Cl is a minus and NA is positive.
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What is a covalent bond? Give 2 examples of simple covalent structures.
When atoms share electrons they form covalent bonds. H2O, H2, CL2, O2, HCL,NH3,CH4.
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What is metallic bonding?
Metals consist of giant structures of atoms arranged in a regular pattern.
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What is a compound?
Substances in which atoms of to or more elements are chemically combined.
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Why do substances that consist of simple molecules do not conduct electricity?
The molecules do not have an overall electric charge.
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How many bonds does each carbon atom form in diamond?
4 covalent bonds with other carbons atoms so this makes it very strong.
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What is the structure of graphite?
Each carbon atoms bonds to three others and this forms layers. The layers are able to slide over each other because there are no covalent bonds between the layers and so graphite is soft. One electron is delocalised. This allows heat to be conducted.
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Diamond, graphite and silicon dioxide are examples of what?
Giant covalent structures.
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what are fullerenes?
Molecules of carbon, shaped like hollow balls or closed tubes. These atoms arrange in hexagonal rings. Different fullerenes contain different amounts of carbon.
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What can fullerenes be used for?
Drug delivery in the body, lubricants, catalysts and in nanotubes for reinforcing materials like tennis rackets.
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Why are alloys harder?
Alloys are made from two or more differnt metals. The different sized atoms distort the layers in the structure, making it more difficult for them to slide over each other - this makes them harder.
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Why can metals be bent or shaped?
The layers of atoms in metals are able to slide over one another therefore they can be bent.
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Give some examples of shape memory alloys.
Braces, glasses.
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What do thermosetting polymers do when heated?
Where they consist of polymer chains with cross links, this means they do not melt when heated due to their strong intermolecular bonds.
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What do thermosoftening polymers have that thermosetting don't
Individual tangled polymer chains. Thermosetting has cross links.
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What is a nanoparticle? Name 2 uses of nanoscience.
Nanoparticles show different properties to the same matericals in bulk and have a high surface area to volume ratio. This leads to the development of new computers, catalysts, coatings, sensors, construction materials, sun cream and deodrants.
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What does nanoscience refer to?
To structures that are 1 -100nm in size.
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Where is the mass number and atomic number and what do they show?
Mass - top number and its the total amount of protons and neutrons. The bottom number is the atomic number and this is the number of electrons.
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What is the mass and charge of proton, neutron and electron
P: 1, + N:1 ,0 E: very small or 0, -
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What is an isotope?
Where atoms of the same element have different number of neutrons. The atomic number stays the same where the mass number will.
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How do you calculate relative formula mass?
The relative formula mass of a compound is the sum of the relative atomic masses of the atoms in the number shown in the formula
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The RFM of a substance,in grams, is called what?
(relative formula mass) in grams is called one mole of that substance.
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What does gas chromatography do?
Allows the separation of a mixture of compounds.
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What does the mass spectrometry do?
Gives the relative molecular mass of each of the substances in the column.
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How can we work out the percentage of an element in a compound?
By the relative mass of the element and the relative formula mass of the compound.
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How can we work out the empirical formula of a compound?
It can be calculated from the masses or percentages of the elements in a compound.
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Why is it not always possible to get 100% product in a chemical reaction?
It may be reversible, some of the product may be lost when it is separated from the reaction mixture, Some of the reactants may react in ways different from the expected reaction.
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Give the equation to work out the percentage yield of a product.
percentage yield = actual yield (grams)/predicted yield (grams) X 100.
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Give the two equations that can be used to find the rate of reaction.
Rate of reaction= amount of reactant used/time OR rate of reaction = amount of product formed/time.
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What is activation energy?
The minimum amount of energy particles need to react with one another.
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List 4 ways to speed up the rate of a reaction.
Increase temperature - collide more. Increased pressure - more collisions. Increase of concentration of reactants - more collisons. Increased SA- more collisons.
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What does a catalyst do?
Change the rate of a chemical reaction but are not used up. Different catalysts are needed in different reactions.
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Why are catalysts good?
Speeds up the reaction which makes more product. Also reduces costs.
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What is an exothermic reaction? Give an example
An exothermic reaction transfers energy to its surroundings. Combustion, oxidation, neutralisation,hand warmers.
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What is an endothermic reaction? Give an example.
An endothermic reaction takes in energy from the surroundings. Thermal decompositions, sport injury packs.
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What is the PH of an acid?
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What is the PH of an alkali?
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Describe 3 ways in which soluble salts can be made using acid?
Metals, insoluble bases- a base is added to the acid until no more will react and then it is filtered off. Alkalis- an indicator can be shown when the acid and alkaline have reacted to produce a salt solution.
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How do you get the solid from a solution after a reaction?
Salt solution can be crystallised to produce solid salts and this is done by evaporating the solution to leave the solid salts.
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Ammonium salts are important in what?
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Why does an ionic substance have to be melted or dissolved?
The ions become free to move about.
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What is electrolysis?
When you pass an electrical current through an ionic substance which is molten.
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Which electrode do the metal ions move to and why
positively charged ions go to the negative electrode and vise versa,
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What is gaining electrons called? What is losing electrons called?
The negative electrode. Positively charged ions gain electrons (reduction) and at the positive electrode, negatively charged ions loose electrons (oxidation)
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Who is newlands and what did he do?
He was the creator of the periodic table but he left no gaps and each element was mixed up.
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Who was mendeleev?
He re modelled the periodic table and left gaps and made predictions. He also ordered them into groups based on their characteristics.
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Name some facts about the alkali metals.
Metals have lower densitys, react with non metals to form ionic compounds where metal has a charge of +1, react with water to release hydrogen, form hydroxides that dissolve in water to give alkaline solutions.
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In group 1 (the alkali metals), the further we go down the group
the more reactive the element and the lower its melting and boiling point/
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In group 7, the halogens, they react with metals to form what?
Ionic compounds and the haldie ion has a charge of -1
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In group 7, the halogens, the further you go down the group...
The less reactive the element is and the higher its melting and boiling point
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A more reactive halogen can displace a less reactive halgoen from what?
AN aqueous solution of its salt.
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Soapless detergents don't form what?
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Which will lather soap more? hard or soft water?
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Hard water reacts with soap to produce what?
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Hard water contains what and how?
Calcium or magnesium. These are dissolved when water comes into contact with rocks.
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What are the two types of hard water and what do they do?
Permanent hard water - remains hard when boiled. Temporary hard water - softened by boiling.
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What does temporary hard water contain and what happens?
They contain hydrogencarbonate ions which decompose when heating to produce carbonate ions which react with calcium and magnesium ions to form precipitates.
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Why does using hard water increase costs?
More soap is needed and it can form scum when heated which reduces the efficency of heating systems and kettles.
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What are the benefits of hard water?
The calcium good for bones and teeth and it can also reduce heart disease.
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How can we make hard water soft?
By removing the dissolved calcium and magnesium ions. We add sodium carbonate which reacts with the dissolved ions to form a precipitate of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate. Then into an ion exchange thing.
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What do water filters contain?
Carbon, sliver and ion exchange resins can remove some dissolved substances to improve taste and quality.
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Why is chlorine and fluoride added?
Chlorine - reduces microbes. Fluoride - improve dental health.
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How can we produce pure water?
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What is measured by simple calorimetry.
The relative amounts of energy released when substances burn can be measured by this. EG heating water in a glass or metal container.
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What is the equation for simple calorimetry/ calculating and comparing the amount of energy released by different fuels
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What is energy measured in?
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During a chemical reaction energy must be suppiled to do what?
To break bonds.
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IN a reaction energy is released when?
When the bonds have formed.
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In an exothermic reaction, where is the greater energy - forming bonds or breaking them.
Forming new bonds is greater than trying to break them.
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In an endothermic reaction, the energy needed to break existing bonds is greater or less than the energy needed to form bonds?
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WHat is the equation for when hydrogen is burned aas a fuel in combustion engines?
hydrogen+oxygen--- water
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What do flame test show? Positive or negative ions?
Metal, positive ions.
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List all of the flame tests.
Lithium - crimson. Sodium- yellow. Potassium- lilac. Calcium-red. Barium- green.
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List all of the results of a sodium hydroxide test. Are these ions positive or negative?
Positive. Copper(11) blue. Iron(11) green and Iron(111) brown precepitates.
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What happens in the carbonate tests? Are the ions positive or negative?
Acid is added to form carbon dioxide. C02 produces a white precipitate with limewater. This turns limewater cloudy.
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What happens in the halide tests? Are the ions positive or negative?
Negative. Silver nitrate and dilute nitric acid are added. White is chloride. Cream is bromide and yellow is iodide.
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Name the sulfate test. Are the ions positive or negative?
Negative. Sulfate ions produce a white precipitate with barium chloride and HCL/
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What does a titration measure?
The volumes of acid and alkali solutions that react with eachother.
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Titrations can be used under what circumstances?
If the concerntration of one of the reactants is known, the results of a titration can be used to find the concerntration of the other reactant.
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What are the raw materials in the harber process?
Nitrogen and hydrogen
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IN the harber process, where is the nitrogen and hydrogen obtained from?
Nitrogen is obtained from the air and hydrogen is sourced from natural gas or other sources.
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What happens to the hydrogen and nitrogen in the haber process?
They are passed over an iron catalyst at 450 and a high pressure (at 200). They break down and they react to form ammonia.
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What is the conditions to turn hydrogen and nitrogen into ammonia?
Iron catalyst, 450, 200 pressure.
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WHen is equilibrium reached in a reversible reaction?
WHen the reactions occur at exactly the same rate in each direction
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What happens to the yield of endothermic and exothermic when the temperature is raised?
Endothermic increases and the exothermic decreases.
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What happens to the yield of endothermic and exothermic when the temperature is lowered
Endothermic decreases and exothermic increases.
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What is the symbol for alcohols and what is put after the prefix?
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Methanol, ethanol and propanol do what when combusted?
Dissolved in water to form a neutral solution, reacts with sodium to produce hydrogen, burnt in air, used as fuels and solvents.
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Ethanol can be oxidised to ethanoic acid, how?
By chemical oxidising agents or by microbial action.
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Ethanoic acid is the main acid in what>
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Ethanoic acid is a member of what?
Carboxylic acids.
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WHat group is ethanoic acid in?
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State what happens in the reactions of carboxylic acids.
Dissolved in water to produce acidic solutions, react with carbonates to produce carbon dioxide, react with alcohols in the pressence of an acid catalyst to produce esters, don't ionise in water so are weak acids.
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What is ethyl ethanoate?
An ester produced from ethanol and ethanoic acid.
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What is esters functional group?
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Draw and label ethanol.
H-C-C-O-H (the carbons have another 2 coming off them but this card wont let me do it.) CH3CH2OH
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Why do we use alcohols?
Perfumes, fuel, drink
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Why do we use carboxylic acids?
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Why do we use esters.
Perfumes,flammable,flavourings,ointments(they give deep heat that smell),solvents
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What does Mr mean?
Relative formula mass (adding together the relative atomic masses like MgCl2 is 95)
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What does Ar mean?
Relative atomic mass. EG the relative atomic mass of helium is 4
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


How is a negative ion formed?


Atoms that gain electrons become negatively charged ions.

Card 3


What are the group 1 elements called? What charge will they have?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are the group 7 element called? What charge will they have


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What holds together ionic compounds?


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