Chemistry 1 Revision Cards

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Atoms
small central nucleus made up of protons and neutrons, electrons around, number of protons=number of electrons, atoms have no overall electrical charge, all atoms of an element have the same number of protons, Number of protons is atomic number
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Element
A substance that is made of only one sort of atom, Shown in the periodic table, groups contain elements with similar properties
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The periodic table
Elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in their outer shell giving them similar chemical properties. Group 0=the noble gases nonreactive because atoms have stable arrangements of electrons
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Chemical reactions
No atoms lost in chemical reactions so mass before and after same,When atoms react their atoms form with eachother to make a compound. This involves gaining or loosing electrons to be an ion or molecule.in molecules compounds held by covalent bonding
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Limestone
calcium carbonate (CaCO3) decomposed by thermal decomposition to made calcium oxide and co2 calcium oxide+water=calcium hydroxide (neutralizing acids) calcium hydroxide+co2=calcium carbonate. Carbonates+acids=co2, salt, water. heated with clay=cement
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Metals and their uses
Found in ores. ores=natural occurring rocks. copper easily extracted but theres not many ores. Aluminium and titanium expensive to produce. metals can be mixed to make alloys.
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Extracting Metals
ores are mined and concentrated before the metal is extracted and purified. Unreactive metals found in earth as they are. metals less reactive than carbon got out by reduction with carbon. metals more reactive got out by electrolysis.
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Extracting metals 2
Copper can be extracted from ores in the furnace (smelting) copper then purified by electrolysis. can also be extracted by phytomining or bio leaching. taken from copper salts (electrolysis) or displacement with scrap iron.
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Alloys
iron from blast furnace contains 96% iron the impurities make it brittle so limited uses. steels are alloys as mix of iron and carbon. alloys can be designed with properties for specific uses. low carbon steel easily shaped. High is are hard
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Crude oil and fuels
crude oil- old biomass in rocks, can be fractionally distilled some fractions can be used as fuels bio fuels from plants. crude oil mix of large num of compounds. 2 or more elements not chemically combined together.
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Crude oil and fuels 2
crude oil separated by distillation most of the compounds made up of hydrocarbons called alkanes
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Hydrocarbons
many hydrocarbons in crude oil can be separated into fractions each contain similar num of carbon atoms by evaporating the oil and allowing it to condense at diff temps (fractional distillation) some properties depend on size of molecules
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Hydrocarbons as fuels
most fuels contain carbon, hydrogen and some sulphar. Gases released when fuel burn-co2, water vapour, carbon monoxide, sulphar dioxide and nitrogen. combustion of hydro carbons releases energy. During combustion carbon + hydrogen are oxidized
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Hydrocarbons as fuels 2
su;lphar dioxide-acid rain co2-global warming solid particles-global dimming. sulphar dioxide can be removed in waste products after combustion. biofuels (ethanol) from plants, renewable, economic, ethical
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getting substances from crude oil
hydrocarbons cracked to make smaller more useful molecules. have to heat the hydrocarbons to vaporise then passed through over hot catalyst or mixed with steam and heated so thermal decomposition
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Polymers
alkenes can be used to make polymers. small molecules (monomers) form to make large molecules (polymers) polymers used for waterproof clothing, dental and hydrogels many not biodegradable so not broken down by microorganisms
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ethanol
produced by hydration of ethene with steam in presence of a catalyst can also be produced by fermentation with yeast using renewable sources.
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Vegetable oils
plant materials crushed and oil taken out by pressing or distillation. important as provide lot of energy and nutrients also higher boiling point than water so can cook food at higher temps
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emulsions
oils dont dissolve in water can be used to create emulsions. Emulsions thicker than water+oil. emulsifiers stop the oil and water from separating they are hydrophobic and phillic
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earths atmosphere
inner core, outeer core, mantle, crust earth crust and mantle cracked into tectonic plates. Convection currents in mantle driven by hear releases radioactive processes which causes separation of plates. 80% nitrogen 20% oxygen small amounts co2,water
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Earth 2
used to be mostly co2. plants produced the oxygen that now here carbon from start locked up in sedimentery rocks as fossil fuels. oceans resovior for co2 nowadays co2 from burning fossil fuels.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A substance that is made of only one sort of atom, Shown in the periodic table, groups contain elements with similar properties

Back

Element

Card 3

Front

Elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in their outer shell giving them similar chemical properties. Group 0=the noble gases nonreactive because atoms have stable arrangements of electrons

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

No atoms lost in chemical reactions so mass before and after same,When atoms react their atoms form with eachother to make a compound. This involves gaining or loosing electrons to be an ion or molecule.in molecules compounds held by covalent bonding

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

calcium carbonate (CaCO3) decomposed by thermal decomposition to made calcium oxide and co2 calcium oxide+water=calcium hydroxide (neutralizing acids) calcium hydroxide+co2=calcium carbonate. Carbonates+acids=co2, salt, water. heated with clay=cement

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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