Chemistry 1

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  • Created by: pheegrace
  • Created on: 31-01-16 15:40
What is bioleaching?
When bacteria gets energy from the bond to seperate a metal from the ore. A leachate(solution) is produced which contains the metal which can be extracted(filtered).
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What is phytomining?
When plants are grown in soil containing a metal which plants can't use or get rid of so it builds up in the leaves. The plants are then harvested, dried and burnt in a furnace and the metal is collected from the ash.
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What is an alloy?
Metal + Metal or Metal + Non-metal to give wanted properties.
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What are the properties of the fractions at the top of a fractional distillation column?
Short molecules, runny, volatile, low boiling point, gas at low temperature and more flammable.
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What is crude oil?
A mixture f many different compounds that are mainly hydrocarbons(alkanes). They are more reiable but are non-renewable. They are used to as fuels, for central heating, to make chemicals including plastics and in power sttions to generate electricity
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What is an alkane?
CnH2n+2. Methane = CH4. Ethane = C2H6. Propane = C3H8. Butane = C4H10. Have covalent bonds.
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What is the mass number?
Top number. Protons+Neutrons.
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What is the atomic number?
Bottom number. Protons/Electrons.
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What are the charges in an atom?
Protons = +. Neutrons = No charge. }Nucleus = +. Electrons = -. Atom = No charge because protons=electrons.
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What is a molecule?
Non-metal atom with a covalent bond.
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What is limestone?
Calcium Carbonate = CaCO3
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What is produced when limestone is heated?
Calcium oxide + Carbon Dioxide. Thermal Decomposition(when a substance becomes at least 2 when heated).
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What is produced when limestone reacts with an acid?
Calcium Salt + Carbon Dioxide + Water.
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Powdered limestone is heated to make cement. How is this turned into mortar and concrete?
+ Sand + Water = Mortar. + Sand + Aggregate = Concrete
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Advantages of limestone?
Products neutralise acidic soil/lakes/rivers, neutralises sulfur dioxide in power stations, quarrying provides jobs/money, doesn't rot, fire-resistant, widely available, easily cut
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Disadvantages of limestone?
Quarrying = ugly holes, noisy, dusty, destroys habitats, transport(noise/pollution), watse forms unsightly tips. Cement factory = dust(breathing problems), burn fossil fuels for energy(pollution).
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What is global dimming?
When fossil fuels are burnt they produce soot and ash particles that reflect sunlight into space.
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What is climate change?
Due to increase in carbon dioxide, causes flooding due to ice caps melting and is due to global warming.
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What is acid rain?
Caused by sulfur dioxide which mixes with clouds. Causes acidic lakes, animals/plants to die and damage to limestone buildings/statues.
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What happens when fossil fuels are burnt?
CO2, Sulfur dioxide and Nitrogen oxide are released. Complete/Partial Combustion.
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What is ethanol(alternative fuel)?
Made from plant material, biofuel, made by fermentation, mix with petrol to make better, carbon neutral, have to convert engines to use, no widely available, increase food prices.
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What is biodiesel(alternative fuel)?
biofuel, vegetable oils, mis with diesel to run diesel engine, carbon neutral, dont need to convert engine, produces less sulphur dioxide, cant make enough to replace diesel, expensive, increase food prices
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What is hydrogen gas(alternative fuel)?
Electrolysis of water, renewable, very clean, need special expensive engine, hydrogen not widely avilable, need energy from other source to make, hydrogen hard to store.
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What is a metal ore?
Something containing enough metal to make extraction worth it usually the oxide of the metal.
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What is an alkene?
CnH2n. Have a double bond(=). Decolourise bromine water as double bond opens and bonds with bromine. E.g. propene, ethene
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How is ethanol produced?
By ethene(non-renewable so will be expensive) recting with steam with a catalyst or by fermentation - sugar-> CO2 + ethanol
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What is polymerisation?
Combining monomers to form a polymer(reuse, recycle, not biodegradable, dont rot, cheaper)
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What is the earth's structure?
Iron and nickel core, mantle which flows slowly in convection currents due to radioactive decay and 5-50km crust
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What are tectonic plates?
Convection currents cause them to drift, move suddenly to cause earthquakes, volcano & earthquakes happen between 2 tectonic plates and they move a few cm per year.
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What is Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift?
Similar fossils found on opposite sides of the ocean, coastlines fit like jigsaw, matching rock layers in different continents.
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What happened in the evolution of the atmosphere?
Earths surface = molten>thin crust forms>volcanoes gave out gases>atmosphere & oceans form>ocean,plant,algae take in CO2 & oxygen released in photosynthesis>plant,algae,skeletons&marine organisms shells buried under sediment...
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What happened in the evolution of the atmosphere?
Carbon from them locked in rocked and released today when we burn fossil fuels>oxygen in atmosphere killed early organisms but evolved others>oxygen creates ozone layer blocking harmful rays from sun and now virtually no CO2 left
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How are plant oils extracted?
1)plant material crushed 2)press crushed plant material to squeeze oil out OR solvents can be used to get oil from plants
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What are vegetable oils used in?
Food(lots energy, essential fatty acids for metabolic processes, from seeds vit E), Cooking(high boil point so cook faster at high temp,increase energy we get out, give food flavour), fuel(lots energy, biodiesel, rapeseed and soybean oil)
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What are unsaturated vegetable oils?
healthy, reduce blood cholesterol, liquid at room temp(hardened by hydrogenation), double bonds between some carbon atoms(monounsaturated fats have one/polyunsaturated fats have more than one)
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What are saturated vegetable oils?
less healthy, increase blood cholesterol which blocks arteries and increases risk of heart disease
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Disadvantages of emulsions?
some people are allergic to emulsifiers
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Advantages of emulsions?
longer shelf life, food is low in fat but still has good texture
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Difference between hydrophilic and hydrophobic?
Hydrophilic - like water(circular head). Hydrophobic - like oil(zig zag tail)
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What happens in the cracking of crude oil?
long chain molecules>short chain molecules(more useful). most products of cracking are alkanes/alkenes. thermal decomposition - heat long chain hydrocarbon to vaporise>vapour pass over powder catalyst at 400-700*>long chain crack on surface catalyst
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What does diesel become when cracked?
petrol, paraffin, ethene
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is phytomining?


When plants are grown in soil containing a metal which plants can't use or get rid of so it builds up in the leaves. The plants are then harvested, dried and burnt in a furnace and the metal is collected from the ash.

Card 3


What is an alloy?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are the properties of the fractions at the top of a fractional distillation column?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is crude oil?


Preview of the front of card 5
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