CHEMISTRY 1

Where did the gases that formed the Earths early atmosphere come from?
The gases that made up the Earths early atmosphere came from volcanoes.Volcanoes gave out lots of gases such as CO2 and water vapour.
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How much oxygen was present in the Earths early atmosphere?
There was virtually no oxygen during the Earths early atomsphere.
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How much carbon dioxide was present during the Earths early atmosphere?
The atmosphere was mostly CO2..
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Name 4 other gases present during the Earths early atmosphere.
Nitrogen, Water Vapour, Argon, Oxygen
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How do scientists believe oceans were formed?
They believe that the water vapour from volcanoes condensed leading to oceans being formed.
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Describe 2 ways that the carbon dioxide in the Earths early atmosphere was reduced.
One ways is that the CO2 disolved into the oceans and marine organisms started to take it in. Another way is that green plants used the CO2 during photosynthesis.
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What is limestone made from?
Calcium Carbonate
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How did photosynethsis affect the composition of the Earths atmosphere?
The plants would take in the CO2 and release O2.
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State 3 ways that humans affected the composition of the Earths atmosphere.
The burning of fossil fuels. Deforestation. Livestock farming.
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What two gases do volcanoes release into the atmosphere?
CO2 and water vapour
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How does deforestation affect the atmosphere?
Trees usually take in CO2 and as deforestation gets rid of trees it means the CO2 is still left in the atmosphere
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Name an igneous rock
Granite
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What is an igneous rock?
An igneous rock forms when molten magma pushes up into the earths crust before cooling and solidifying.
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Name two sedimentary rocks
Chalk and limestone
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How are sedimentary rocks formed?
Compaction of layers of sediment over a long period of time
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Which type of rocks many contain fossil fuels?
Sedimentary
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Chalk, limestone and marble are all made from what?
Calcium Carbonate
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Name three everyday materials that calcium carbonate is mined to form?
Glass concrete and cement
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Give two disadvantages of quarrying limestone.
Noise pollution, destroys habitats, land cannot be used for farming
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Give one advantage of quarrying limestone.
Produces more jobs
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Write the word equations for the thermal decomposition of limestone
Calcium oxide + carbon dioxide ----- Calcium carbonate
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What can you say about the mass of reactants and the mass of a product in a reaction?
They will be the same
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Write the word equation of water and calcium oxide
water + calcium oxide ---- calcium hydroxide
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What is formed when calcium hydroxide is disolved in water?
Limewater
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Give two uses of calcium carbonate in the industry.
Neutralises soils and removes gases from powerstations
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Give two uses of hydrochloric acid in the stomach.
Kills bacteria and helps digestion
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What type of salts are formed from hydrocholric acids, nitric acids and sulphuric acids?
Chlorides, Nitrates and Sulphates
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What is an element?
One type of atom only
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What charge are protons, neutrons and electrons?
Protons are positively charged. Neutrons have no charge and Electrons are negative.
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What charge is the nucleus of an atom?
Positive
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Name 3 noble gases.
Argon, Helium and Neon
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What does the top number on an element in the periodic table represent?
The total number of protons and electrons in that certain element.This is called the mass number
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How do you find out the number of neutrons in an element?
You subtract the atomic number from the mass number.
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What does the atomic number represent?
The number of protons. As protons and electrons have the same amount of atoms it also tells you the number of electrons.
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What is the rule of plotting electrons around its shell?
2,8,8,8 and so on until the number of electrons in that elements are all plotted.
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What is ionic bonding?
When an atom GIVES an electron to another atom.
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What is covalent bonding?
When an atom BONDS together with another atom to SHARE the electrons.
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Give one example of covalent bonding.
1 carbon atom that joins together with 2 oxygen atoms to produce carbon dioxide.
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What is an ore?
A rock containing enough metal to extract it.
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Name 2 ways a metal can be extracted.
Electrolysis and through carbon
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How do you know whether electrolysis is used or carbon is used.
If the element is higher than carbon in the reactivity series then electrolysis is used however if it is lower than carbon then reduction by carbon happens.
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What is copper extracted by?
Electrolysis. Copper can easily be extracted by reduction by carbon but this way the element is still impure and impre copper doesnt conduct electricity very well so electrolysis is used to purify it.
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What does electrolysis mean?
The splitting up with electricity.
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Explain the process of electrolysis.
Electrolytes(a liquid)has free ions to conduct the electricity. The electrons are taken away by the posistive anode and given to the negative cathode. As the ions gain or lose electrons they become atoms or molecules and are released.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How much oxygen was present in the Earths early atmosphere?

Back

There was virtually no oxygen during the Earths early atomsphere.

Card 3

Front

How much carbon dioxide was present during the Earths early atmosphere?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Name 4 other gases present during the Earths early atmosphere.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How do scientists believe oceans were formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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