Chemical Thermodynamics

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1. What is the difference between Macrostate and microstate of a system?

  • Macrostate is defined by parameters (eg.pressure, temp, number of phases) and microstate is defined by thermodynamics (the position and velocity of the particles and distribution of energy between them)
  • Macrostate is defined by thermodynamics (the position and velocity of the particles and distribution of energy between them) and microstate is defined by parameters (eg.pressure, temp, number of phases)
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2. Which of the equations is Boltzmann constant used for?

  • For absolute value of Energy
  • For absolute value of Entropy
  • For absolute value of Enthalpy

3. If Q

  • Change in Gibbs < 0 And the reaction will go from left to right (spontaneous)
  • Change in Gibbs > 0 And the reaction will go from left to right (spontaneous)
  • Change in Gibbs < 0 And the reaction will go from right to left
  • Change in Gibbs > 0 And the reaction will go from right to left

4. What is a catabolic pathway in terms of Gibbs energy?

  • Change in Gibbs < 0 exergonic pathways eg biosynthesis
  • Change in Gibbs < 0 exergonic pathways eg degradation of nutrients to obtain available energy
  • Change in Gibbs > 0 endogonic pathways eg degradation of nutrients to obtain available energy
  • Change in Gibbs > 0 endogonic pathways eg biosynthesis

5. Which of these statement aren't true about steady state? (about biological systems

  • System produces work and is irreversible
  • It is an equilibrium of input and output of substances/energy
  • Entropy is not in maximum but change in entropy is apprx. constant
  • The equation is at equilibrium
  • The thermodynamic system is open
  • Gibbs is not minimum and chnage in gibbs is approx constant

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