CHEMICAL CONDITIONS and PRODUCTS

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conditions for acid hydrolysis of ester bond
hot aqueous acid
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conditions for acid hydrolysis of amide bond
hot aqueous acid
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products of acid hydrolysis of ester bond
carboxylic acid and alcohol
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products of acid hydrolysis of amide bond
carboxylic acid and PROTONATED amine
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conditions for alkaline hydrolysis of ester bond
hot aqueous NaOH
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products of alkaline hydrolysis of ester bond
sodium carboxylate ion and alcohol
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conditions for alkaline hydrolysis of amide bond
hot aqueous NaOH
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products of alkaline hydrolysis of amide bond
Sodium carboxylate ion and ammonia/amine
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conditions for nitration of benzene
concentrated HNO3 and concentrated H2SO4, 50°C
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conditions for reduction of nitrobenzene
Tin and CONC HCl and heat 6[H]
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conditions for deazotisation
Nitrous acid (HNO2), diluted HCl, under 10°C
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conditions for coupling
phenol, aqueous NaOH + alkaline conditions
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products of nitration
nitrobenzene + 1H2O
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products of reduction of nitrobenzene
phenylamine + 2H2O
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products of deazotisation
chloride diazonium ion + 2H2O
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Products of coupling
azo-dye, NaCl and 1H2O
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conditions for halogenation of benzene
halogen carrier (AlCl3, AlBr3)
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products of halogenation
chloro/bromobenzene and HCl/HBr
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What kind of reaction is nitration/halogenation?
electrophilic subsitution
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To make aldehyde
distil primary alcohol and heat with acidified potassium dichromate
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to make ketone
refluc secondary alcohol with acidified potassium dichromate
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identify carbonyls
2,4 DNP, make orange ppt, filter and recrystallise, measure melting point, compare to database
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distinguish between aldehydes and ketones
tollens reagent, ammoniacal silver nitrate. gives a silver mirror effect.
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how does tollens reagent work?
OXIDISES aldehydes, REDUCES silver ions
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conditions halogenoalkanes to amines
excess ethanolic ammonia and heat
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products of halogenoalkanes to amines
amine e.g (ethylamine/propylamine) + HCl/HBr
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conditions for reduction of aldehydes
NaBH4 and water
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conditions for reduction of ketones
NaBH4 and water
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what kind of reaction is reduction of aldehydes etc?
nucleophilic addition
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what is 2,4-DNP used for?
a)dteect carbonyl grouo b) identify compoud from melting point of derivative
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triglyceride
triester of glycerol and fatty acids
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A NH2 group will make the isoelectric point
HIGHER (more alkaline)
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A COOH/acidic group will make the isoelectric point
LOWER (more acidic)
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Conditions for subsitution of halogen to amine
ethanolic ammonia and heat
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Card 2

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conditions for acid hydrolysis of amide bond

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hot aqueous acid

Card 3

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products of acid hydrolysis of ester bond

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Card 4

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products of acid hydrolysis of amide bond

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Card 5

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conditions for alkaline hydrolysis of ester bond

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