Chemical bonding

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How many electrons do atoms generally need to have on their outer shell to become stable?
Eight (unless it is the first shell when only two electrons are needed)
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What is the transfer of electrons called?
Ionic bonding
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What happens to the charge of metals if they loose electrons?
They become positive because they have lost negative charges and the positive charge in the nucleus is not counter balanced
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What happens to the charge of non-metals during ionic bonding?
It becomes negative
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What is the structure of sodium chloride and magnesium oxide?
Giant ionic lattice (in which positive ions have strong electrostatic attraction to negative ions)
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In what form do giant ionic lattices exist?
Solids
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Can sodium chloride conduct electricity?
No - this is because the ions cannot move and can therefore not carry a charge
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Can sodium chloride solution conduct electricity?
Yes - this is because the bonds between ions are broken and they are now free moving and able to carry a charge
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Why do sodium chloride and magnesium oxide have a high melting point?
There are strong attractions between positive and negative ions
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Why is the melting point of MgO higher than NaCl?
Because MgO is made of Mg2+ and O2+ whereas NaCl is only made of Na+ and Cl+. Therefore there is a stronger force of attraction between magnesium and oxygen ions and more energy is needed to break the bonds
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What is the name of non-metals sharing electron pairs between atoms?
Covalent bonding
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What is the attraction between carbon dioxide molecules called?
Intermolecular force
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What is the result of weak intermolecular forces between molecules?
Molecules are easy to break apart and therefore have a low melting point
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Why does carbon dioxide not conduct electricity?
There are no free electrons
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What is the name of the bonding between metal atoms?
Metallic bonding
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What properties do metals have because of metallic bonding?
High melting and boiling points because of strong electrostatic forces between positive ions and negative electrons; and they can conduct electricity because there are free moving electrons
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the transfer of electrons called?

Back

Ionic bonding

Card 3

Front

What happens to the charge of metals if they loose electrons?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens to the charge of non-metals during ionic bonding?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the structure of sodium chloride and magnesium oxide?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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