Chem definition

  • Created by: Kamila
  • Created on: 24-05-13 13:58
Enthalpy change
change in heat measured at constant pressure
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Standard enthalpy of formation
Enthalpy change when one mole of a compound is formed from its elements at 298K and 100 kPa
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Standard enthalpy of combustion
Enthalpy change when one mole of a substance is completely burnt at 298K and 100 kPa
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Hess's law
Total enthalpy change is independent of route
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Bond dissociation energy
Enthalpy needed to break a covalent bond in the gas phase
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Mean bond enthalpy
Enthalpy required to break a covalent bond averaged over many compounds
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Activation energy
Minimum energy needed for a reaction to occur
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Catalyst
Speeds up a reaction without being used up
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Rate of reaction
the change in concentration of a substance in a given time (units are mol dm-3 s-1)
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Le Chatelier’s Principle
When the conditions on a system in equilibrium are changed, the equilibrium moves to oppose the change
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Dynamic equilibrium
Forward rate = backward rate
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Stereoisomers
same structural formula but different arrangement of atoms in space
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E/Z isomers
isomers resulting from restricted rotation about a double bond, where two different groups are attached to each carbon of the C=C
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Unsaturated
contains one or more double C=C bonds
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Electrophile
electron pair acceptor
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Fuel
a substance that is burned to produce heat
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Biofuel
a fuel produced from biological sources
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Carbon neutral
an activity that has no net annual carbon emissions to the atmosphere
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Nucleophile
lone pair donor
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Hydrolysis
breaking bonds using water
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Radical
contains an unpaired electron
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Oxidation
loss of electrons or increase in oxidation number
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Reduction
gain of electrons or decrease in oxidation number
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Oxidising agent
electron acceptor
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Reducing agent
electron donor
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Standard enthalpy of formation

Back

Enthalpy change when one mole of a compound is formed from its elements at 298K and 100 kPa

Card 3

Front

Standard enthalpy of combustion

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Hess's law

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Bond dissociation energy

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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