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  • Created by: Ikra Amin
  • Created on: 23-01-14 14:23
General formula
The formula that represents all the straight and branched chain compounds in the class of compounds
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Empirical formula
The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound
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Molecular formula
The actual number of atoms of each element present in a molecule
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Structural formula
The minimum amount of detailed required to show the unambiguos arrangement of atoms in a molecule
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Displayed formula (Full structural formula)
The structural formula showing every atom and every covalent bond
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Skeletal formula
The structural formula showing only the bonds between carbon atoms and the functional groups
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Hydrocarbon
A compound that contains ONLY carbon and hydrogen atoms
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Saturated
A compound containing only single covalent bonds
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Unsaturated
A compound containing one or more C=C double bonds
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Homologous series
A series of organic compounds having the same functional group but with each successive member differing by CH
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Functional group
A group of atoms responsible for the characteristic reactions of a compound
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Structural isomers
Compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae
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Stereoisomers
Compounds with the same structural formula but with a different spatial arrangement of their atoms and bonds
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E/Z isomerism
An example of stereoisomerism that arises due to resistricted rotation about a C=C double bond. There must be 2 different groups attached to each carbon atom of the C=C
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Cis-trans isomerism
A special type of E/Z isomerism in which 2 of the substituent groups are the same
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Homolytic fission
The symmetrical breaking of a covalent bond, with one of the bonding electrons going to each atom, forming two radicals
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Heterolytic fission
The unsymmetrical breaking of a covalent bond, with both of the bonding electrons going to only one of the atoms, forming a cation (+) and an anion (-)
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Radical
A species with an unpaired electron
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Nucleophile
A lone pair of electrons donor with formation of a dative covalent bond
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Electrophile
A lone pair of electrons acceptor with formation of a dative covalent bond
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Substitution
A reaction in which an atom or functional group is REPLACED by another atom or functional group
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Addition
A reaction in which two or more reactants combine to make a single product
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Condensation
A reaction in which two organic molecules join together with the elimination of a small molecule from the linkage
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Esterification
A special type of condensation reaction in which an ester is formed from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol with the elimination of water from the linkage
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Oxidation
Addition of oxygen or removal of hydrogen
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Reduction
Addition of hydrogen or removal of oxygen
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Hydration
ADDITION of water (or steam)
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Hydrolysis
Reaction with water or an aqueous sodium (or potassium) hydroxide
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Fermentation
The reaction in which ethanol is formed from glucose
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Cracking
A reaction in which long chain alkane molecules are broken down into a mixture of smaller alkane and alkene molecules
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Addition polymerisation
A reaction in which long chain molecules are formed from smaller molecules which contain a C=C double bond
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Reflux
Continuous heating without loss due to evaporation
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π-bond
A covalent bond formed by the overlap of two p-orbitals resulting in a region of high electron density above and below the molecule
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Biofuel
A fuel that can be obtained from plants or animals
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Bioethanol
Ethanol that is made by FERMENTATION from plants with a high starch or sugar content
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Biodiesel
A fuel made by transesterification from oil-rich algae or plants with oil-rich seeds
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Biomass
Waste material from plants or animals
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Atom economy
= Molecular mass of the desired products / Sum of molecular masses of all products x 100%
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Percentage yield
= Actual moles of product / Expected moles of product x 100%
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Volatility
The ease with which a liquid turns into a gas. (Volatility increases as boiling point decreases)
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Fingerprint region
The region of the infra red spectrum between 1500 and 400 cm
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Molecular ion
The ion formed when a complete molecule of the sample loses only one electron
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Molecular ion peak
The peak with the greatest mass / charge ration which gives a direct reading of relative molecular mass
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Base peak
The peak for the most abundant fragment ion (set at 100%)
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Exothermic
A reaction in which heat energy is released to the surroundings (∆H is negative)
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Endothermic
A reaction in which heat energy is absorbed from the surroundings (∆H is positive)
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Standard conditions
Pressure = 100 kPa and Temperature = 298K (25⁰c)
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Standard state
The normal phsyical state of a substance under standard conditions
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Standard enthalpy change of reaction (∆Hrᶱ)
The enthalpy change that accompanies a reaction in the molar quantities expressed in a chemical equation at 100kPa and 298K, all reactants and products being in their standard states
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Standard enthalpy change of formation (∆Hfᶱ)
The enthalpy change that occurs when ONE MOLE of a compound is formed from its ELEMENTS in their STANDARD STATES AT 100kPa AND 298K
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Standard enthalpy change of combustion ((∆Hcᶱ)
The enthalpy change that occurs when ONE MOLE of a substance reacts COMPLETLEY WITH OXYGEN at 100kPa AND 298K, all reactants and products being in their STANDARD STATES
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Average (mean) bond enthalpy
The enthalpy change that occurs when 1 MOLE of a given type of COVALENT BOND is broken, AVERAGED across a range of compounds in the GASEOUS STATE
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Hess's Law
The overall enthalpy change for a reaction is the same irrespective of the route taken (as long as the initial and final conditions are the same)
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Rate of reaction
The change in concentration of a reactant or product in a given time. The gradient of a graph of concentration against time
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound

Back

Empirical formula

Card 3

Front

The actual number of atoms of each element present in a molecule

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The minimum amount of detailed required to show the unambiguos arrangement of atoms in a molecule

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The structural formula showing every atom and every covalent bond

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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