Checking the basics: Biology Topic 3

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Which cell type is circular DNA found in, Eukaryotic or Prokaryotic?
Prokaryotes.
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What is the function of a cell wall?
Present in both plant cells and prokaryotic cells. It serves to give the cell structure and protection.
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What is the function of the nucleus?
They contain the DNA and genes that control the synthesis of proteins.
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What is the function of the nucleolus?
It is the site within the nucleus where ribosomes are formed.
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What is the function of chloroplasts?
They are the site of photosynthesis in plant cells.
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What is the function of mitochondrion?
They are the site of later stage respiration (produces ATP).
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What is the function of the lysosome?
They contain digestive enzymes.
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What is the function of ribosomes?
Site of protein synthesis.
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What is the function the Rough endo-plasmic reticulum?
Makes and transports proteins.
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What is the function the Smooth endo-plasmic reticulum?
Produces lipids.
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What is the function of the golgi-apparatus?
It modifies proteins and packages them for transport.
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What is the function of centrioles?
Involved in the production of spindle fibres during nuclear division.
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Define the term chromosome.
The structure within a nucleus containing DNA.
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Define the term gamete.
A gamete cell is one which contains half the number of chromosomes in a normal cell.
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Define the term haploid.
This is the number of chromosomes in a gamete cell. 23
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Define the term diploid.
A cell containing two complete sets of chromosomes.
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Why is it important for gametes to be haploid?
So that when the two cells (egg and sperm) come together they have the correct amount of chromosomes.
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How can meiosis lead to genetic variation?
Independant assortment (random lining up of chromosomes) and Crossing over (where two chromatids fuse and swap parts of DNA)
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What are the stages of the cell cycle?
Interphase (G1, S, G2), Mitosis, and Cytokinesis.
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What happens in Interphase?
G1- cells prepare for replication. S- DNA replicates. G2- Spindles form, mitochondria/chloroplasts divide, cellular proteins synthesised.
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What are the stages of mitosis?
I(PMAT)C- Prophase-Metaphase-Anaphase-Telophase.
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What happens in Prophase?
Chromosome condense. Spindle fibres form. Nuclear envelope breaks down.
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What happens in Metaphase?
Chromosomes arrange across the equator and attach to spindle fibres.
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What happens in Anaphase?
Chromatids are seperated and pulled to the poles of the cell.
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What happens during Telophase?
Nuclear envelope reforms, and chromosomes de-condense.
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Card 2

Front

What is the function of a cell wall?

Back

Present in both plant cells and prokaryotic cells. It serves to give the cell structure and protection.

Card 3

Front

What is the function of the nucleus?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the function of the nucleolus?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the function of chloroplasts?

Back

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