Charles II and his ministers 1667-78

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Who were the members of the CABAL?
Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley and Lauderdale
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What religion were the five ministers?
Clifford- Catholic, Arlington- Catholic, Buckingham & Ashley- freethinkers & Lauderdale- Scottish Presbyterian
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What did the ministers have in common?
They weren't Anglican
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What weaknesses of the CABAL were there?
They all had different opinions- no unity, no coordinated policy, they competed with each other & Buckingham and Arlington hated one another
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Which minister did the most?
Arlington
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Which minister was closest to the king?
Buckingham- favourite like his father
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What advantages of the CABAL were there?
Charles could use their differences to his advantage- strengthened Charles' position as King
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What were Charles' aims?
Extend religious toleration and make an alliance with the French
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Why did Danby's emergence initially strengthen the relationship between crown and parliament?
His policies were in tune with parliaments views e.g. No toleration and a rigid Church of England & anti-French but pro-Dutch policy
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How did Danby's gain support in parliament?
Sent selected MPs personal letters persuading them to support the crown- used crown patronage, giving jobs to bind the support of men
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What was the Test Bill 1675?
All office holders had to swear that they should never seek to alter the government of the church and state
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Did the Test Bill get passed?
No, defeated by Shaftsbury (Ashley) and Buckingham
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What did Shaftsbury and Buckingham claim the Test Bill was an attempt at?
Enforcing an absolutist monarchy
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How did Danby change the financial relationship between crown and parliament?
He improved it, between 1674-7 the average annual income of the crown was £1.4 million
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How did Danby improve the financial situation between 1674-7?
He persuaded Charles to withdraw from the Dutch war, and increased trading
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How did Danby weaken the financial situation?
The amount of debt had increased by approx. £750,000 & he couldn't control Charles' spending
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Why were Shaftsbury and Buckingham placed in the Tower of London for 5 months 1677?
Because they claimed that because parliament hadn't met for 15 months new election had to be held
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What did the Anglo-Dutch treaty involve?
Charles had to ally against the French and impose peace terms and force if necessary
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What did parliament do after Charles agreed to the Anglo-Dutch treaty?
They voted to raise 30,000 men and £1mil- however only £30,000 was collected by Poll tax
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What were the aims of the "country" aka Whigs?
Protect the country from threats of Catholicism and absolutism
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What was the Greenm Ribbon Club 1674?
Led by Shaftsbury, a political pressure group that was predominantly "country" men
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Why did Whig propaganda increase?
Charles dissolved the cavalier parliament before they could renew the licensing act- allowed free press
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When did the emergence of 'court' and 'country' first emerge?
In the cabal parliament
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How was Danby seen as a threat?
He was seen as trying to undermine parliament- 165 pamphlet claimed that there was a conspiracy behind imposing absolutism through a standing army
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Was there any truth behind these claims?
Yes- Danby's role in helping Charles maintain the Treaty of Dover where Charles tried to keep parliament out of session as much as he could in return for £250,000 a year from the French
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What was the Peace of Nijmegen and when was it?
Peace treaty between the French and Dutch- 1678
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After the peace of Nijmegen what did Charles do to rises concerns over fears of absolutism?
He didn't disband the 30,000 men- people thought he was going to use the army to become and absolutist monarch
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Why was Danby removed from office?
Parliament found out about the Secret Treaty of Dover and blamed him
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What has Harris said about Charles' reformation (2005)?
The crown experienced a great loss of prestige- failed foreign policy and religious settlement made the reformation settlement disappointing for many
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What did Smith say about the emergence of the Whigs and Tories (1999)?
They derived from 'court' and 'country'
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What did the Whigs stand for?
Believed that Catholics played a role in the growing concerns over absolutism, right of resistance against tyranny, civil authority came from the people, parliament was to protect protestantarianism on behalf of the people & tolerated some dissent
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What did the Tories believe in?
Divine right, right to resist even against tyranny, Church of England, threat of absolutism from republicans, non-conformists and parliament & civil authority came from God
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When did the terms Tories and Whigs begin to get used?
Throughout the exclusion crisis
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What religion were the five ministers?

Back

Clifford- Catholic, Arlington- Catholic, Buckingham & Ashley- freethinkers & Lauderdale- Scottish Presbyterian

Card 3

Front

What did the ministers have in common?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What weaknesses of the CABAL were there?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which minister did the most?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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