when did charles become king?
March 1625
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when did the war with spain start?
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did charles have the finances to support a war?
no, he spent around £500,000 + £120,000 of the dowry earned through the marriage. however this barely covered expenses for a small navy
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was the war successful?
no, when the fleet arrived in cadiz they found wine and beer and got drunk forgetting the expedition
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why did the war with the french start in 1626?
Buckingham angry at the french for using british fleets on loan, to defeat a protestant fleet.
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what happened at la rhe in 1627?
Buckingham leads the expedition but didn't have the necessary experience so he was unable to sack rhe
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what were the effects of charles's foreign policy?
parliament was unwilling to vote for large sums of money only to see them being wasted as nothing was achieved. however the lack of money made defeat much more likley
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what happened during the expedition to la rochelle in 1628?
the english expedition was sent to relieve la rochelle which was under siege by the french king.
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was la rochelle successful?
no it was a even bigger failure than Rhe. because of this mps wrote the petition of rights
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when did buckingham die?
in 1628 killed by john felton
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who became bishop of london in 1628?
laud an arminian
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what did arminians want/believe in?
churches had to be well decorated, the communion table had to be railed off, uniformity of worship. the uniformity should be maintained through clergy. they supported the royal prerogative
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why was charles attracted to arminianism?
it mirrored his own concern with order, obedience and hierarchy. arminianism fulfilled his needs politically and personally
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what did parliament think of charles's closeness to arminianism?
they were completely against it as it was to similar to catholicism, as most of them were calvinists.
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what happened in the 1625 parliament?
charles asked for money to finance war with spain. they voted to subsidies of £140,000. they voted tonnage and poundage for a year.
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what happened in the 1626 parliament?
charles selected the most prominent mps who criticised him in the previous parliament, as sheriffs for their counties so they could not be in parliament.
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what was the outcome of 1626?
mps did not grant more money. wanted to impeach buckigham after the failure in cadiz and his closeness to arminianism seen in the york house conference
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why did charles dissolve parliament?
to save buckigham from impeachment
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what did charles do in 1625 to earn more money?
he levied forced loans worth 2 subsidies on his richer subjects.
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how much did charles earn by 1627?
£260,000 which had been levied on all subsidy payers
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5 knights case
the forced loan was seen as an attack on the fundamental that taxation had to be agreed with parliament. so 76 people including wentworth were imprisoned for refusing to pay. the judge refused to pronounce that the loan was legal.
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what happened with the case?
the 5 knights asked for their right of habeus corpus. the king refused to release them saying that they had now been imprisone by him. by doing this charles not only was illegaly taxing but also imprisoning at his pleasure
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parliament of 1628
mps to show loyalty grant him 5 subsidies and tonnage and pundage in return for him to sign the petition of rights
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petition of rights
mps present the king with a petition which would safeguard their liberties. the petition of rights asked for an end of non parliamentary taxation, imprisonment without cause, billeting
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did charles accept the petition?
yes, reluctantly. he still believed that what he did was right
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what was the remonstrance?
a formal statement of grievences presented ti the king which included innovations in religion, buckingham, foreign failures
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what were the 3 resolutions?
the condemned anyone who promoted popery, arminianism, counselled the collection of tonnage and poundage and voluntarily paid the duties
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charles's reaction to the resolutions?
he imprisoned the mps showing no respect for the petition of rights and dissolved parliament.
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what was the personal rule?
the period of 11 years where charles ruled without parliament
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how did he raise money?
forced loans, tonnage and poundage, the revival of old laws which included distraint of knighthood, forest laws,
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what was the most profitable way of income?
ship money. it raised £190,000 a year
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hampden's case
hampden refused to pat ship money. the judges did not vote in favour of ship money so hampden won. the amount collected fell.
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charles's own law courts
he opened the star chamber and high comission courts so that he could prosecute who he pleased
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laud brought this motto to make sure that the reforms were carried out properly
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the reforms that laud made to the church of england
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prayer book rebellion?
king imposed a new prayer book in scotland in 1637. this caused a riot in a church in scotland
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what was charles's reaction?
he issued a proclamation making rebellion to the book an act of treason
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what was the scots reaction?
they drew up a covenant where thousands of scots signed it.
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what was the bishop war?
it was in 1639 charles decided to suppress the scots by force. however it never happened as charles troops was to disorganized
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treaty of berwick
june 1639 agreement that both sides would demobilise
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short parliament
april 1640 strafford tells charles to call this parliament. the commons talk about their grievences and were not going to give any money to charles unless he settled the ship money issue.
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why does he dissolve the short parliament?
parliament didn't give him money straight away
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second bishops war?
august 1640 scots invaded england. charles unable to defend had to agree to a truce. the scots were payed 850£ a day until peace could be made
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long parliament?
november 1640 not officially dissolved till 1660. two subsidies were voted. dismantaling of personal rule
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triennial act?
parliament every 3 years
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irish rebellion?
november 1641. irish had aparently murdered many protestants. 5000 protestants killed. the rebels claimed that they had the order from charles
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when did the war with spain start?



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did charles have the finances to support a war?


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was the war successful?


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why did the war with the french start in 1626?


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