characteristics of phobias, depression and OCD

  • Created by: AnnabellP
  • Created on: 28-11-17 09:19
Phobias - who experiences anxiety?
everyone
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Phobias - what is anxiety a response to?
potentially dangerous stimuli
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Phobias - what are phobias characterised by?
extreme irrational fears that go beyond any real risk
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Phobias - how long do these last?
these can be very enduring, lasting for many years
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Phobias - how many people will suffer from a phobia in their lives?
around 10% of people
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Phobias - who are more likely to have phobias?
females have twice the incidence of phobias as males
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Phobias - when do most phobias emerge and what happens over time?
in childhood. lessen in strength during adulthood
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Phobias - what do sufferers generally have?
insight into their phobias and know that their fears and reactions are irrational, but they cannot consciously control them
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Phobias - what do phobias subdivide into?
simple phobias, social phobias, agoraphobia
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Phobias - what are simple phobias?
involving fears of specific things, like coulrophobia (fear of clowns). simple phobias divide into sub-types of animal phobias, injury phobias, situational phobias and natural environment phobias
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Phobias - what are social phobias?
involving being over-anxious in social situations, like giving public speeches
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Phobias - what is agoraphobia?
fear of leaving home or a safe place
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Phobias - what are the behavioural characteristics?
avoidance responses and disruption of functioning
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Phobias - what are avoidance responses?
efforts are made to avoid anxiety-producing situations
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Phobias - what is disruption to functioning?
severe disability to everyday working and social function occurs
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Phobias - what are the emotional characteristics?
persistent, excessive fear and fear from exposure to phobic stimulus
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Phobias - what is persistent, excessive fear?
high levels of anxiety are produced by phobic stimuli
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Phobias - what is fear from exposure to phobic stimulus?
production of immediate fear response to phobic stimulus
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Phobias - what are the cognitive characteristics?
recognition of exaggerated anxiety
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Phobias - what is recognition of exaggerated anxiety?
phobics are consciously aware that their anxiety levels are over-stated
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Depression - how many people will suffer?
about 20%
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Depression - who is more likely to suffer, when and why?
women twice as vulnerable as men, especially in adolescence where many people experience body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem
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Depression - what is depression and what is it characterised by?
a mood disorder characterised by feelings of despondency and hopelessness, generally occuring in cycles
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Depression - when is the onset?
in your 20's
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Depression - how many people with severe depression commit suicide?
10%
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Depression - how many main types are there?
2
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Depression - what are the two main types?
unipolar depression and bipolar depression
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Depression - what is unipolar depression?
where a constant low mood is experienced
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Depression - what is bipolar depression?
where sufferers swing between elevated and despondent moods
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Depression - what can depression be broken down into?
endogenous and exogenous depression
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Depression - what is endogenous depression?
related to internal biochemical factors
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Depression - what is exogenous depression?
related to stressful experiences
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Depression - how many symptoms must be apparent and for how many days for a diagnosis?
5 symptoms every day for 2 weeks
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Depression - what are the behavioural characteristics?
loss of energy and social impairment
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Depression - what is loss of energy?
sufferers experience reduced energy levels
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Depression - what is social impairment?
reduced levels of interaction with friends and family occur
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Depression - what are the emotional characteristics?
loss of enthusiasm and sense of worthlessness
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Depression - what is loss of enthusiasm?
sufferers experience a lessened interest in, and pleasure of, everyday activities
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Depression - what is sense of worthlessness?
persistent feelings of reduced worth and inappropriate sensations of guilt are experienced
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Depression - what are the cognitive characteristics?
reduced concentration and poor memory
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Depression - what is reduced concentration?
difficulties with paying and maintatining attention, as well as slowed-down thinking and indecisiveness, can be experienced
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Depression - what is poor memory?
difficulties with retrieval of memories can occur
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OCD - how many people suffer?
about 2% of people
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OCD - what is it and what is it characterised by?
an anxiety disorder characterised by persistent, recurrent, unpleasant thoughts and repetitive, ritualistic behaviours
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OCD - what are the obsessions?
the things that sufferers think about
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OCD - what are the compulsions?
the behaviours they indulge in as a result of the obsessions
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OCD - what do obsessions generally comprise?
forbidden or inappropriate ideas and visual images that are not based in reality
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OCD - what do common obsessions include?
contamination, fear of losing control, perfectionism, sex and religion
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OCD - what do female obsessions tend to be about?
contamination
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OCD - what do male obsessions tend to be about?
sex and religion
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OCD - what do compulsions consist of?
intense, uncontrollable urges to perform repetitive tasks in order to reduce the anxiety caused by obsessive ideas, such as contantly washing yourself to get rid of germs
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OCD - what is there a realisation of?
that the obsessions and compulsions are inappropriate, but they cannot be consciously controlled
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OCD - what do OCD symptoms often overlap with?
those of autis and Tourette's syndrome
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OCD - what are the behavioural characteristics of OCD?
hinders everyday functioning and social impairment
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OCD - what is hindering everyday functioning?
obsessive ideas create such high levels of anxiety that the ability to perform everyday actions is severely hindered
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OCD - what is social impairment?
anxiety levels are so high that they limit the ability to conduct meaningful interpersonal relationships
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OCD - what are the emotional characteristics?
extreme anxiety
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OCD - what is extreme anxiety?
persistent inappropriate ideas and visual images create excessive levels of anxiety
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OCD - what are the cognitive characteristics?
attentional bias and recurrent and persistent thoughts
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OCD - what is attentional bias?
percpetion tends to focus primarily on anxiety-generating stimuli
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OCD - what is recurrent and persistent thoughts?
constantly repeated, obsessive, intrusive thoughts and ideas are experienced
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What is the practical application of these mental disorders?
the characteristics allow clinicians to create 'checklists' that permit them to diagnose which particular disorder an indivudal may be suffering from.
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How are these characteristics written up?
into diagnostic criteria, such as the ICD and the DSM
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Phobias - what is anxiety a response to?

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potentially dangerous stimuli

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Phobias - how long do these last?

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Phobias - how many people will suffer from a phobia in their lives?

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