characteristics and classification of living organisms

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  • Created by: Rubyblu
  • Created on: 10-04-18 11:50
Living organisms
respire, show irritability and movement, nourish themselves, grow, develop, excrete, reproduce
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variation
the offspring are often different from one another and from their parents
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energy
is necessary to carry out their life processes
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respiration
the chemical reactions that break own nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy for metabolism
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irritability
the ability to detect or sense changes in the internal or external environment and to make appropriate responses
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movement
an action by an organism or part of an organism causing a change of position or place
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growth and development
the processes by which an organism changes in size and form, usually these changes are permanent
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excretion
removal from organisms of toxic materials, the waste products of metabolism and substances in excess of requirement
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reproduction
the processes that make more of the same kind of organism - new individuals (e.g. offspring, new cells)
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classification
the science of placing organisms into categories on the basis of their observable characteristics
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conservation
scientists need to be able to identify different organisms in habitats which are being managed and they need to control which organisms are used in breeding programmes
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understand evolutionary relationships
organisms which have many of the same features are normally descended from common ancestors
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classification key
categorising living organisms by identifying and sorting ther according to common characteristics
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morphology
the shape of organisms
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anatomy
the structure of organisms
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five kingdoms
prokaryotae, protoctista, fungi, plantae, animalia
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hierarchy of classification
kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
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protein structure
organsims which are closely-related have very similar animo acid sequences in proteins (e.g. haemoglobin)
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DNA structure
closely-related organisms have very similar base sequences in DNA because there has been less 'evolutionary time' for mutation to change these base sequences
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viruses
don't show the typical features of living things, unless they are inside of another living organism
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virus structure
genetic material - may be DNA or RNA, but always a single strand, protein coat - protects the single strand of nucleic acid, made of many subunits, spikes - may contact and recognise the cell to be infected
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Card 2

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the offspring are often different from one another and from their parents

Back

variation

Card 3

Front

is necessary to carry out their life processes

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

the chemical reactions that break own nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy for metabolism

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

the ability to detect or sense changes in the internal or external environment and to make appropriate responses

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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