# Chapter 4 and 5 : Starting a research project, Sampling

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• Created by: hforde
• Created on: 20-04-14 20:06
Research proposal
Document that describes what type of research will be done to gather data relevant to a research problem and a client's business problem; explains to a potential client how a research problem will be investigated.
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Population
Universe of enquiry (population of interest; target population)
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Survey population
Population actually covered by the research
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Sampling
Selection of a fraction of the total number of units in the population of interest for the ultimate purpose of drawing general conclusions about the entire population of interest.
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Coverage error
Happens when your population of interest or your target population differs from the population you actually sample.
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Probability or random sampling
Objective procedure in which the probability of selection is known in advance for each population unit.
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Non-probability sampling
Subjective procedure in which the probability of selection is unknown beforehand.
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Online access panels
Large groups of people you have agreed to take part in online research.
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Recruitment
Term generally used for qualitative sampling
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Convenience sampling
Taking as the sample those units which are easiest to access
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Judgement sampling
Selecting sample units based on the expert opinion of the researcher
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Network/snowball sampling
Involves selecting sample units recommended by initial sample units.
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Simple random sampling
Procedure in which every possible unit within a population has a known and equal probability of being chosen for the sample and the means of selection is completely random
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Systematic random sampling
Variation of simple random sampling and involves a 'system' (as opposed to random number generation) for selecting sample members.
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Stratified random sampling
Probability sampling procedure in which units from each of the segments, or strata, of the population are 'forced' into the sample.
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Proportionate stratified random sampling
Involves the selection of a number of units from each population stratum in proportion to the total number of units in the stratum.
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Disproportionate stratified random sampling
Involves the selection of a number of units from each population stratum disproportionately to the total number of units in the stratum.
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Cluster sampling
A procedure whereby clusters (or groups) of population units are selected at random and then all or some of the units in the chosen cluster are studied.
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Quota sampling
Involves identifying the total number of units to sample and the specific characteristics of sections of the sample, but it does not specify which individual unit is to be selected. The sampling unit is chosen by the field worker.
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Sampling frame
A list of all members of a population from which a sample is drawn.
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Sampling error
The difference between the sample statistics and the actual population value.
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Non-sampling error
Consists of all elements of error or mistake arising from other parts of the research process.
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

Universe of enquiry (population of interest; target population)

Population

### Card 3

#### Front

Population actually covered by the research

### Card 4

#### Front

Selection of a fraction of the total number of units in the population of interest for the ultimate purpose of drawing general conclusions about the entire population of interest.

### Card 5

#### Front

Happens when your population of interest or your target population differs from the population you actually sample.

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