Chapter 3: Cell division and cellular organisation

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What happens in Anaphase?
The stage in cell division when chromatids are pulled apart and travel to opposite ends of the dividing cell.
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What happens in Metaphase?
The stage of cell division just after the disappearance of the nuclear envelope during which chromosome centromeres are aligned to the equator.
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What happens in Prophase?
DNA molecules coil and super coil, shortening and getting thicker until they eventually form threads that are thick enough to be visible if they are stained.
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What happens in Telophase?
Where chromosomes have arrived at opposite ends of the dividing cell. They decondense and become surrounded by a nuclear membrane.
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What is cytokinesis?
After Mitosis, the cell divides into two genetically identical cells.
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Why does DNA need to be checked before replicating?
To check for mutations.
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How do the chromosomes move in Metaphase?
Microtubules have attached themselves to the centromeres of the chromosomes. Each centromere is grabbed by one microt. on either side, each pulling in opposite direction on the centromeres, bringing chromosomes to lie at equator.
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Why is mitosis significant?
Produce genetically identical cells, divid when body needs more of the same. Occurs in a developing embryo. Occurs in damaged tissues. In some organisms, used for reproduction (strawberry plants or single celled yeast)
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How many cells does your body contain?
10,000,000,000,000 (10 to the 13)
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What is a zygote?
The single cell that was formed by the fusion of an egg and a sperm cell.
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What is a blastocyst?
The tiny ball of cells formed by a zygote as its cells repeatedly divide. The zygote divided to form a tiny ball of cells called blastocyst which continued to divide to form an embryo.
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Why do stem cells differ from most human cells?
They are unspecialised, divide repeatedly to make new cells and can differentiate into several kinds of specialised cells.
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What does 'Totipotent' mean?
If it is able to divide to form any of the different types of specialised cell in the body.
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How is a neutrophil a specialised cell?
The cytoplasm contains small granules, which some are lysosomes which contain enzymes for digesting bacteria, others are glycogen stores.
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How is an erythrocyte a specialised cell?
Biconcave, no nucleus, no organelles, very small and thin.
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How is a spermatozoan a specialised cell?
Acrosome head containing hydrolytic enzymes that digest a way into the egg cell for fertilisation. Mitochondria for energy;swim. Flagella containing microtubules. Nucleus containing single set of chromosomes.
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How is cambium a specialised cell?
Cambium can divide to form xylem vessels.
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How are root cells specialised?
Have a large surface area by having long thin extensions that grow between the soil particles.
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Define 'Tissue'"
Is a collection of cells, together with any intercellular secretion produced by them, that is specialised to preform one or more particular functions.
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Define 'Organ'
Is a part of the body which forms a structural and functional unit and is composed of more than one tissue.
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Define 'System'
Is a collection of organs with particular functions.
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Card 2

Front

What happens in Metaphase?

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The stage of cell division just after the disappearance of the nuclear envelope during which chromosome centromeres are aligned to the equator.

Card 3

Front

What happens in Prophase?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happens in Telophase?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is cytokinesis?

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