Chapter 1 Cell Structure

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  • Created by: Chloesn
  • Created on: 04-12-13 23:46
Two types of cells?
Eukaryote and Prokaryote
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Three microscopes?
Light, Scanning Electron Microscope, Transmission Eelectron Microscope
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The magnification and resolution of microscopes?
Light x1,400 200nm TEM x500,000 0.5nm SEM x100,000 0.5nm
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Light Microscope
The specimen has to be thin and flat. Placed on top is a coverslip. Stains are used because biological specimens are colourless - different parts take up different amounts. Stains - iodine Methylene
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TEM
Use of electrons means a shorter wavelength and so higher resolution. Works similar to light passing electrons through a thin stained object. Stains normally used are heavy metals (lead/osmium) Ions of these are taken up, charged don’t pass through
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SEM
Bouncing electron beams off the surface of an object creating a 3D image. Thin layer of gold - large atoms - electrons will bounce off.
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What is the ultra-structure of a cell?
The organelles seen with an electron microscope.
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Define organelle?
Any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.
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Is there anything wrong with saying 'cell membrane'?
Yes, you have to say 'PLASMA cell membrane'.
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Eukaryotic Cell?
Nucleus Mitochondria Chloroplast (Plant) Lysosomes Cytoskeleton Plasma Membrane Cell Wall (Plant) Cytoplasm Ribosomes Endoplasmic Reticulum Cilia and flagella Chromosomes
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Prokaryotic Cell?
Circular DNA Cell Wall (Peptidoglycan) Ribosomes Cytoplasm Some flagella Plasma membrane
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What is always present in a both cells?
Plasma (cell) Membrane Cytoplasm Circular DNA Ribosomes Cell Wall (Plants)
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Cell Wall?
The cell wall can be found in plant cells where it is made of long strands of cellulose (a carb). It’s arranged in a criss-cross manner, held together by a matrix containing pectin.It keeps the cells shape, stretching with a large intake of water.
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Plasma Cell Membrane?
The plasma (cell) membrane isolates the reactions inside the cell from the outside environment. It controls what enters the cell and what leaves. (Lipid bilayer)
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Nucleus?
The Nucleus is the ‘brains', surrounded by a double (nuclear) membrane - the Nuclear Envelope.The outer membrane is connected to the ER. There are openings within this - called Nuclear Pores. Allows communication + exchange of large molecules.
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Nucleolus
Inside the Nucleus is the nucleolus (dark staining), it has an indirect role in protein synthesis producing ribosomes. The Nucleolus disappears during cell division reforming after completion.
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Transcription?
Transcription and translation are spatially and temporally separated that is, transcription occurs in the nucleus to produce a pre-mRNA molecule.The pre-mRNA is typically processed to produce the mature mRNA, which exits translated in the cytoplasm
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Protein synthesis and its uses?
It all begins in the Nucleus. Information from DNA is copied by mRNA travelling out into the cytoplasm via the nuclear pores. Most protein synthesis takes place in the RER, the ribosomes attached to the membrane synthesize proteins. Cisternae collect
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Cytoplasm?
Cytoplasm contains all the organelles and is where some reactions take place.
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Vacuole?
Vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle containing liquid. Mature plants large vacuole containing cell sap - substances in solution: Sugars pigments and enzymes. Membrane around the vacuole - tonoplast.
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Centrioles?
Centrioles are found in animal cells. They make+organize microtubules made of a protein called tubulin. Cell division they form a spindle, and are responsible for moving chromosomes around - pulling to opposite ends.
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Rough/smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
RER has ribosomes attached to it where as SER does not have ribosomes attached to it. RER is where most protein synthesis takes place. SER has different roles in different cells.
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Ribosomes
Ribosomes are responsible for the production of proteins and can be located attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (bound) and (free ribosomes) in the cytoplasm. Assembles amino acids forming specific proteins. DNA transcription and translation
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The golgi apparatus/complex
The golgi is comprised of membrane covered/bound cisternae, an unstable structure constantly changing. It modifies lipids and proteins and then prepares them export outside the cell or transport to a different area of cell.
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The golgi route?
Golgi route 1 Protein made by ribosomes of the ER 2 Vesicles carry the protein join with the golgi. 3 The protein is modified (adding sugars). 4 Vesicles carry the modified protein are produced by the golgi 5 Contents of the vesicles endocytosis
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Lysosomes and example?
Lysosomes are bags of digestive enzymes - single membrane, fuse with other vesicles containing something that needs digesting,break it down into a soluble substance. Sperm - Acrosome
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Mitochondria?
Mitochondria are sites for aerobic respiration in a cell. Oxygen, energy containing molecules from glucose are used to make ATP. Structure - Inner and Outer membrane, Matrix, Cista/e
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Chloroplast?
Chloroplast have a double membrane - envelope. Inside there are membranes called grana/um - these can form stacks in places called thylakoids. Chlorophyll is contained in the grana, this where the light-dependant reactions of photosynthesis.
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Cilia and Flagella (Lungs)?
Cilia/um and Flagella/um are long thin extensions from the cell surface can produce movement. Cilia short, large numbers Flagella Longer, ones or twos. Slide against each other moving the cell in turn the cilia and flagella bend and straighten
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Cytoskeleton
The cytoskeleton provides the cell with mechanical strength and helps direct whole cell movement
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Cytoskeleton movement of organelles inside and structure?
Providing tracks for organelles to be moved along, microtubules can be used as ‘motors’ using ATP to pull them along. they make up the cytoskeleton. It is made up of protein filaments - microfilaments for support coupled with microtubules
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ATP
Adenosine triphosphate - currency used in cells.
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Light reactions (plants)?
Light energy captured by the chlorophyll then used to split water molecules to provide hydrogen ions - to make ATP + reduced NADP. This is then used to make carbs - uses carbon dioxide - in the light-independent reactions. These take place in stroma.
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