Chapter 1: Cell Structure

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What magnification does a light microscope have?
x1500
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Methylene blue stains ___ ___ and produces the colour __ __.
Living cells; dark blue
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Iodine Solution stains _____ and produces the colour _____.
Living plant cells; very dark blue
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Acidified phloroglucinol stains ___ and produces the colour _____.
Ligin; Bright red
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Acetic orcein stains ____ and produces the colour ___.
Nuclei and chromosomes; red
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Eosin stains ____ and produces the colour ____.
Cytoplasm and some organelles; pink
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Light green stains ___ and produces the colour ____.
Plant cell walls; green.
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How do you calculate magnification?
size of image / real size of object
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What is the smallest object you would be able to distinguish in a light microscope?
200nm
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The best resolution that can be achieved in a TEM is ___ and the best effective magnification that can be achieved is ___.
0.5nm; 300,000x
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What is the definition of resolution?
The ability to distinguish between two objects very close together. The greater the resolution of an image, the greater the detail that can be seen.
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What is the definition of smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
Endoplasmic reticulum that does not have ribosomes associated with it. It carries out various metabolic reactions, such as the synthesis of steroids.
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How does a SEM microscope work?
By bouncing electron beams off the surface of an object, producing 3D images. Magnification at x100,000
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How do TEM microscopes work?
By passing electrons through a thin specimen, magnification at x500,000
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The nucleolus is a dense area of chromatin, containing ___ that is being used to make ___, the tiny organelles where protein synthesis takes place.
DNA; Ribosomes
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What do nuclear pores allow the exit of?
mRNA
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What is chromatin?
The DNA in a nucleus when the chromosomes have not been condensed/ tangle of DNA and protein (histone)
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The ___ in mitochondria is the site of aerobic respiration.
Matrix.
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Where is ATP made?
Mitochondria and chloroplasts.
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In chloroplasts, there are membranes called ____ and in places they stack together called ___, which contain chlorophyll and this is where the light dependant reactions take place.
Thylakoids;Grana
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What happens in light dependant reactions?
Light energy is captured by chlorophyll and used to split water molecules to provide hydrogen ions, which are then used to make ATP and a substance called reduced NADP, which are then used to make carbohydrates, using CO2 from the air, in the LDR.
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Where do the light dependant reactions take place?
In the background material of a chloroplast called the stroma.
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What is the starch grain in the chloroplast used for?
As an energy store in plants.
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What is lamella?
A membranous fold in a chloroplast.
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How are microtubules arranged in cilia and flagella?
9+2
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How is movement produced in cilia and flagella?
The microtubules sliding against each other.
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Describe the structure of a vacuole.
Has a membrane called tonoplast. Contains cell sap containing sugars, pigments and enzymes.
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What is the function of centrioles?
To organise microtubules.
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What are microtubules made of?
Tubulin
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What is the purpose of cytoskeleton?
To help determine the cell's shape and to help direct movement of organelles and to help the whole cell move.
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Cell walls are made of ____, which is arranged in a criss-cross manner, held together by a matrix called ____, which keeps the wall very strong and is also found in the middle lamella.
Cellulose: Pectin
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What is a prokaryote?
A cell which does not contain a nuleuc or any other membrane bound organelle, such as bacteria.
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What is a prokaryotic cell wall made of?
Peptidoglycan, which stops the cell bursting when it expands.
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What do prokaryotic cells contain?
Small Ribosomes, DNA not associated with histones, cell walls and some have flagella.
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What are lysosome?
Tiny bags of digestive enzymes, have a single membrane, they destroy with unwanted or worn out organelles by breaking them down to produce soluble substances that can disperse into the cytoplasm
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The enclosed spaces formed by the membranes in the endoplasmic reticulum are called____.
Cisternae, which keep these spaces isolated from the cytoplasm.
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What happens at RER?
Protein synthesis on the ribosomes, as the proteins are made, they collect inside the cistern, from here they can be transported to other parts of the cell
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What organelles all have a double membrane?
Nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplast
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What happens at the Golgi Apparatus?
Proteins are processed, packaged and transported to where they are needed.
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A ______ enters the Golgi Apparatus from the ____ and a ______ leaves.
Transport vesicle containing proteins; RER; secretory vesicle.
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What is the structure of the Golgi Apparatus?
A stack of curved membranes enclosing a series of flattened sacs.
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What would be the function of SER in a liver cell?
To produce steroids which detox.
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What is one structure associated with the cytoskeleton which can bring about cell movement
Microfilaments
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What is the process of endocytosis?
The movement of bulk liquids or solids into a cell, by the indentation of the plasma membrane to form vesicles containing the substance. it is an active process requiring ATP.
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Card 2

Front

Methylene blue stains ___ ___ and produces the colour __ __.

Back

Living cells; dark blue

Card 3

Front

Iodine Solution stains _____ and produces the colour _____.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Acidified phloroglucinol stains ___ and produces the colour _____.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Acetic orcein stains ____ and produces the colour ___.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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