Chapter 1

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What is a neurone ?
A neurone consists of dendrites, a cell body and an axon ending at a synapse. It is used to transmit nerve impulses
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What do dendrites do?
they receive chemical signals from other neurones
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What do axons do?
Axons transmit signals from the cell body to the synapses on the dendrites of other neurones
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What is a synapse ?
synapses are the junctions between nerve cells.
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What is Parkinson's disease?
A disease that effects the neurones. it effects posture and movement.
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What is a neurodegenerative disease?
it is a disease caused by the break down of neurones which can lead to a gradual loss of function.
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What is Levodopa?
Levodopa is a drug that is used to reduce tremors and stiffness. it can enter the brain and convert the levodopa into dopamine. helps to restore the neurotransmitter in the brain and reduces the symptoms of Parkinson's disease.
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What is a Neurotransmitter?
A neurotransmitter is a chemical that are released by one neurone and diffuse across the synaptic gap to another neurone.
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What is Dopamine?
Dopamine is a chemical neurotransmitter. it is found in the brain and and used to control movement and has a major role in the reward pathway. Dopamine can't pass through the blood brain barrier however levodopa can be injected into the body.
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What is psychosis?
Psychosis is a mental state in which the patient feels a loss of contact with reality - hallucinations or delusions.
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What is the reward theory?
a reward is an environmental change that makes it more likely that a behavior pattern will be repeated
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what does dependent mean?
this happens when drug users stop taking a drug and suffer unpleasant physical or psychological symptoms.
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what does addicted mean?
this happens when someone looses control over drug taking. addicts continue to take drugs compulsively despite harmful effects on health and social relationships.
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What does ADHD stand for?
ADHD is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Thought to be a problem with the number of genes or environmental factors. Treated by psychological therapy, behavior management, counselling, change of diet, educational support and medication
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what is depression?
depression is the development of feelings of worthlessness, hopelessness and self-hatred. symptoms may include loss of interest, pleasure, weight gain or loss, extreme tiredness, poor self esteem, thoughts of death or suicide. hallucinations
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what does SAD mean?
SAD stands for Seasonal Affected Disorder. People become depressed at particular times of the year. can be caused by environmental factors.
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what is a cross-sectional study?
A cross sectional study is a study that looks at data that is collected at a particular time
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What is a longitudinal study?
A longitudinal study investigates changes over a long period of time.
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how can a result be considered significantly significant?
results are considered statistically significant if they show that it is unlikely to have happened by chance. shows that a environmental effect may be real. backs up a hypothesis.
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what is health?
health can be described as complete physical, mental and social well being
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What is the cerebrum?
The cerebrum is a part of the brain that contains millions of neurons and synapses. the cerebrum is used for decision making, analytical and movement controlling areas, memory, and language.
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What does the brainstem do?
the brainstem is a part of the brain that is used for unconscious movements such as heartbeat, breathing, digestion and temperature regulation.
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what does the corpus callosum do?
it contains axons that connect it to the two cerebral hemispheres.
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what is the cerebellum used for?
the cerebellum is used to coordinate fine movement and balance.
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What is the prefrontal cortex?
the prefrontal cortex is found at the front of the brain and is used for decision making, personality, motivation and emotional responses. it has dopamine receptors.
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what is the nucleus accumbens?
it is a small part of the brain that is used for reward, addiction, laughter and fear. it has dopamine receptors.
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what is the striatum used for ?
it is a part of brain used for movement control, reward, novelty. it is the degeneration of this part of the brain that relates to Parkinson's disease. it contains dopamine receptors.
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what is the hippocampus?
the hippocampus is a small part of the brain that is used for memory and links to the reward theory. it contains dopamine receptors.
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Card 2


What do dendrites do?


they receive chemical signals from other neurones

Card 3


What do axons do?


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Card 4


What is a synapse ?


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Card 5


What is Parkinson's disease?


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