Chapter 10: Diet and Food Production

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Define 'Coronary Heart Disease'
A disorder affecting the blood vessels (coronary arteries) that supply the muscles in the heart walls with blood
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Define 'Balanced Diet'
A diet that includes some of all the required nutrients (carbs, protein, fibre, water, minerals, vitamins and fats) in suitable proportions.
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How do you breed wheat resistant to Russian wheat aphid?
Spraying pesticides or genetic engineering/selective breeding
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Define 'Cultivar'
A race or variety of a plant that has been created or selected intentionally and maintained through cultivation
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Outline the development of Atheromatous Plaque
Endothelium is damaged, white blood cells invade the damaged lining, stimulating the accumilation of cholesterol and types of lipids, overtime the phagocytes and cholesterol build up under the artery lining forming fibrous plaque.
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Define 'Malnutrition'
The effects of an unbalanced diet e.g. obesity or anorexia
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Define 'Mycoprotein'
Food made from the culture of fungi in a fermenter.
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What are the advantages of mycoproteins?
Cheaper and easier to work with than animals, cultured in small area, don't need particular weather conditions.
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What are the disadvantages of mycoproteins?
Bland taste, special laboratories are expensive,
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Describe the process of making mycoproteins
Culture medium contains glucose, providing fungus with a respira. substrate for release energy, Ammonium phosphate added, temp, pH and oxygen for opt. grow. condit.The liquid culture allowed to runoff from the fermenter, centrifuged toseparate hyphae
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In Mycoprotein production, what is the fungus made of?
Glucose with added ammonium phosphate. The fungus is made of long thread-like hyphae which are easily broken in the fermentation.
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The fungal hyphae contain a high concentration of __, which has a bitter taste. Enzymes are added to break in down. Mycoprotein makes an excellent food source, rich in protein and low in fat.
RNA
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Describe the process of selective breeding
Select the animal with desired characteristics, allow reproduction, offspring selected with best combination of characteristics, only those allowed to reproduce, process continued for generations to exaggerate desired characteristics.
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What is Mastitis?
Udder inflamtion in cows when they have been bred for high milk productivity.
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What are the diseases associated with obesity?
CHD, Type 2 diabetes, Cancer, Gall stones, Arthritis.
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What is meant by essential amino acids?
Those that must be digested to make protein / those that cannot be synthesised.
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What are the symtoms of Kwashiorkor?
Muscle wasting, Oedema, moon face, swollen stomach, Dry Skin, Tooth decay.
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What are the problems with controlling the spread of malaria?
Resistance to plasmodium, Many surface antigens, dormant, mozis breed quickly, no vaccine, poor housing, eukaryotic has many genes.
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What is the role of a)Protein b)Lipids c)Iron in the body?
a) Formation of new cells and tissues b)Making cell membranes and steroid hormones c)Formation of Hb
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What is autolysis/
Deterioration of food caused by enzymes within the food itself, begins on death of organism and produces rancid flavours by fat oxidation.
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How will low temperatures prevent food from spoiling?
Slows down the growth of microorganisms. +ve very little loss of nutritional value. -ves Water expansions lead to cell damage and mushy food.
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What is freeze-drying?
A special form of drying that removes all moisture and tends to have a less effect on food taste than normal dehydration. The food is thawed because of the low pressure the water in the food sublimates (ice to vapour)
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How does a high osmolarity help with preserving food?
Salt or sugar can be used to generate a high solute concentration in the food. Such conditions inhibit the growth of microorganisms, which will lose water by osmosis. -ves seriously change taste.
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What are the disadvantages of pesticides?
Expensive, resistance, can kill off insects unwantingly, pesticides could be consumed by humans, limited range of organic pesticides availible.
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What is DDT?
A broad spectrum pesticide, which kills all insects, not just the pests. Narrow spectrum insecticide only kills a specific organism.
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What is the difference between HDLs and LDLs?
HDLs have lots of protein and little lipid whereas LDLs have more lipid and little protein.
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What is the difference between saturated and un-saturated fats?
Saturated fats tend to be animal derived (no double bond) whereas un-saturated fats tend to be plant fats (have a double bond)
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What is the role of HDLs?
Pick up cholesterol from the body cells that are dying or whose membranes are being restructured and transported to the liver.
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What is the role of LDLs?
carry lipids and cholestrol from the liver to other parts of the body.
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How can you reduce the risk of CHD?
Reduce intake of saturated fats (reduces proportion of LDLs), eat more unsaturated fats (increase concentration on HDLs). Statins (drugs) can be used which inhibit enzymes of the liver.
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Lipoproteins are particles made in the __ for movement of cholesterol in the bloodstream. Cholesterol is not water ___, so has to be packaged in these particles, which are coated with __ and proteins so that they can travel in the blood plasma.
Liver; Soluble; Phospholipids
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What can cause the lesions (tears) in the endothelium in the coronary arteries leading to myocardial infarction (heart attack)?
High Blood Pressure
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What is an Autotroph?
It is an organism which does not require organic nutrients such as plants.Producers of food chains are autotrophs, which use an external energy source and simple inorganic molecules.
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What is a heterotroph?
An organism which requires organic nutrients. All animals and fungus are heterotrophs. They take in complex organic substances as sources of energy and carbon compounds to use in their metabolism.
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How can farmers increase the productivity of their plants?
Provide more light, more water by irrigation, provide more CO2, control pests and diseases with pesticides, control weeds and provide mineral nutrients.
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What can farmers do to improve livestock productivity?
Provide better nutrition, food supplements, control pests and diseases, use antibiotics, use growth promoting hormones and protect from predators.
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What do microorganisms need to spoil food?
A substrate (the food), water, suitable temperature, oxygen and a suitable pH.
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How do you calculate BMI?
Body mass (kg) divided by height in metres (squared)
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Explain how bacteria cause food spoilages.
bacteria cells divide, secrete enzymes, food broken down, starch is broken down and causes change in appearance.
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Why does food spoil faster at higher temperature?
Bacteria reproduce faster, so more bacteria present and more toxins released, enzyme action is faster and there is more kinetic energy released.
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Suggest how organic fertilisers improve the yield of plant crops
Add minerals to soil, nitrogen can be used for proteins and magnesium for chlorophyll, lacking of minerals can be a limiting factor
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What are the advantages of mycoproteins?
Low in saturated fats, source of essential amino acids, animal morals, less likely to cause heart disease, use less land and can be produced in any climate.
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What are the disadvantages of mycoproteins?
Different taste, lacks iron, loss of farming jobs, high set up cost for factories and may require removal of toxins.
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Suggest why yoghurt production relies on a plentiful supply of plants.
Dairy animals use plants for food, plants are the basis of all food chains and some yoghurts contain fruit as their flavouring.
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Card 2

Front

Define 'Balanced Diet'

Back

A diet that includes some of all the required nutrients (carbs, protein, fibre, water, minerals, vitamins and fats) in suitable proportions.

Card 3

Front

How do you breed wheat resistant to Russian wheat aphid?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Define 'Cultivar'

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Outline the development of Atheromatous Plaque

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