Chapter two-developing tensions up to 1948

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  • Created on: 27-05-19 18:18
Why did the USSR and Western states become more divided?
-USSR consolidated ita control over the 'satellite states' of Eastern and Central Europe. -USA introduced 'containment' from March 1947 to stop communism from spreading further.
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Why did support grow in Europe for Socialist parties from 1945-48?
-Appealed to anti-elitist current after war. -Unemployment, shortages and chaos of post-war fuelled support -Anti-fascist partisan groups linked to socalism. -Rural areas developed strong pro-agrarian parties.
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What were Stalin's methods of establishing control?
-USSR employed 'salami tatics' where anti-communist parties were sliced into small disunited pieces. -Encocouraged local communist parties to from alliances with left-leaning parties, allowing them to be integrated into the communist party.
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What was a key move used in the elections?
Intimidation and manipulation of the elections.
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What were the key events in Czechoslovakia?
-Feb-MArch 1948, communists purged the non-communist members of the govenment and the pro-US foregin minister (Jan Masaryk) was found dead beneath a window which the US believed was on purpose.
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What was the US reaction to the events in Czechoslovakia?
-The US Congress showed greater acceptance towards the Marshall plan and it grew more hostile between the US and USSR.
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What had happened with Stalin's desire for a buffer zone?
-By 1948, the USSR controlled a buffer zone of satellite states. Stalin believed this was justifed due to the sacrifices the Soviet Union made in the war and the buffer zone was to stop another potential attack from the West in the future.
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Where were there communist regimes in Europe?
Albania, Bulgariam Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Yugoslavia.
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When did Yugoslavia break away from the USSR's sphere of influence?
June 1948
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What were the events in Yugoslavia?
Josip Broz Tito, a communist wartime resistance leader, was elected President of Yugoslavia in 1945. Tito estalished a communist regime without Soviet help.
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How were the politcal and economical systems of the satellite states coordinated?
By the Cominform after its founding in 198.
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When did Kennan give his advice on American policy towards the USSR?
February 1946
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What were Kennan's main points in the telegram?
-The USSR views the West as hostile and menacing. -Peaceful relations between the USSR and USA are unlikely. -Prosperity in the West will undermine communism in the East. -USSR foreign policy is aggressive and ideologically driven.
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What were Kennan's points on war and Europe?
The USA should be prepared to threaten the use of force to contain Soviet expansion, but war itself is unnecessary and the USA should adopt a more proactive role in Europe.
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What did Kennan's thoughts helped Truman to confirm?
That the USSR was a threat to USA's interests and that a policy of 'containment' was required.
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What was Truman's policy of containment?
To prevent the spread of communism. It aimed to strengthen anti-communist governments and movements in Europe by providing economic assistance.
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What did containment suggest?
That any attempt at a negotiated settlement with the USSR had been abandoned.
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What did contianment provoke in the USSR?
It provoked a hostile reaction from Stalin as he percived 'contianment' as a direct threat to use American economic power against the Soviet Bloc.
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When did Churchill make his Iron Curtain speech?
March 1946
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What did the speech include?
The ideological and physical divisions in Europe.
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What did the speech help?
Push the US towards introducing containment.
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How did Stalin view the speech?
Stalin viewed the speech as a direct attack on the USSR and East-West divisions widened.
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How did Stalin responsed to Churchill's speech?
Stalin gave an interview to the SOviet newsppaer, Pravda where he painted the USA and Britain as meddling powers who were trying to preevnt the USSR from peacefully seeking out Eastern Europe allies to reinforce its security.
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How did the Greek Civil War start?
In 1943-44, as Greece was liberated from Nazi occupation, thre was violent conflict between the monarchists and the Greek communists who had fought to liberate Greece. In March 1946, this conflict broke into full-scale civil war.
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What was Britian's involvement?
Britain had been providing assistancr to the anti-communist forces in Greece and in neighbouring Turkey, but in February 1947 told the AMericansthey could no longer afford to do so, because Britain was facing a major financial crisis.
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How did the USA take over from the UK?
In March 1947, the USA pledged anti-communist assistance to Greece and Turkey. This attitude was known as the 'Truman Doctrine' by which the USA was prepared to provde advice (money and equipment) to any peoples threatened by 'subjugation'
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What was the Truman doctrine influenced by?
It was influenced by Kennan's Long Telegram and Chruchill's Iron Curtain speech.
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When was the Cominform created?
September 1947
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What was the cominform?
To coordinate the actions and roles of communist groups across EUrope, so they would all be united and act in accordanxe with Moscow's wishes.
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Why was the cominform created?
Stalin was sure that the USA was engineering an anti-Soviet, US-led global alliance so in response Stalin created the Cominform to formalise Soviet influence over all other communist regimes in Eastern Europe.
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What did Tito (leader of Yugoslavia) challenged Stalin over?
He challenged the Soviet control over SOuthern and Eastern Europe and resisted subservience to Moscow.
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When was Yugoslavia expelled from the Cominform?
June 1948
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Why was Yugoslavia expelled from Cominform?
Moscow gave the abandoment of Marxist-Leninist princples and an unwillingness to conform to an acceptable political position as the reasons.
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How did Yugoslavia and the USA capitalised on thus expulsion?
They entered an agreement that provided economic assiatance to Yugoslavia through the Marshall plan.
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Card 2

Front

Why did support grow in Europe for Socialist parties from 1945-48?

Back

-Appealed to anti-elitist current after war. -Unemployment, shortages and chaos of post-war fuelled support -Anti-fascist partisan groups linked to socalism. -Rural areas developed strong pro-agrarian parties.

Card 3

Front

What were Stalin's methods of establishing control?

Back

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Card 4

Front

What was a key move used in the elections?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What were the key events in Czechoslovakia?

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