Chapter 4: Functional and chemical properties of food- Keywords

Chemical bonds.
Bonds that hold large protein molecules together in compact, folded bundles.
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Denaturation.
The chemical bonds have broken and the protein molecule has unfolded and changed shape.
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Coagulation.
The joining together of lots of denatured protein molecules, which changes the appearance and texture of food.
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Foam.
Formed when gases (often air) are trapped inside a liquid, to form a gas-in-liquid foam.
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Gelatinisation.
The swelling of starch granules when they are cooked with a liquid to the point where they burst and release starch molecules.
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Dextrinisation.
The breaking up of starch molecules into smaller groups of glucose molecules when they are exposed to dry heat.
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Caramelisation.
The breaking up of sucrose molecules when they are heated, which changes the flavour, texture and colour of the sugar as it turns into caramel.
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Plasticity.
The ability of a fat to soften over a range of temperatures and be shaped and spread with light pressure.
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Shortening.
The ability of fat to shorten the length of gluten molecules in pastry.
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Aeration.
The ability of fats to trap lots of air bubbles when beaten together with sugar.
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Emulsification.
Either keeping drops of oil or fat suspended in a liquid and preventing them from from separating out; or keeping drops of water suspended in an oil or fat and preventing them from separating out.
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Raising agent.
An ingredient or process that introduces a gas into a mixture so that it rises when cooked.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The chemical bonds have broken and the protein molecule has unfolded and changed shape.

Back

Denaturation.

Card 3

Front

The joining together of lots of denatured protein molecules, which changes the appearance and texture of food.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Formed when gases (often air) are trapped inside a liquid, to form a gas-in-liquid foam.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The swelling of starch granules when they are cooked with a liquid to the point where they burst and release starch molecules.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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