Chapter 3 - Attachment

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  • Created by: ImanB
  • Created on: 09-04-16 22:39
Reciprocity
A description of how two people interact. Mother-infant interaction is reciprocal in that both the mother and the infant respond to each other's signals and each elicts a response from the other
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Interactional synchrony
Mother and infant reflect both the actions and emotions of the other and do this in a co-ordinated (synchronised) way
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Stages of attachment
Many developmental theories identify a sequence of qualitatively different behaviours linked to specific ages. In stages of attachment, some characteristics of the infants behaviour towards adults changes as the infant gets older
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Multiple attachments
Attachments to two or more people. Most babies appear to develop multiple attachments once they have formed one true attachment with their main carer
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Animal studies
Studies carried out on non human species rather than on humans either for ethical or practical reasons. Practical because animals breed faster and researchers are interested in seeing results across more than one generation of animals
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Learning theory
A set of theories from the behaviourist approach to psychology that emphasise the role of learning in the acquisition of behaviour. Explanations for learning of behaviour include classical and operant conditioning
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Monotropic
A term sometimes used to describe Bowlby's theory. The mono means "one" and indicates that one particular attachment is different from all other and of central importance to the child's development
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Internal working model
The mental representation we all carry with us of our attachment to our primary caregiver. They are important in affecting our future relationships because they carry our perception of what relationships are like
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Critical period
Refers to time which an attachment must form if it is to form at all. Lorenz and Harlow saw attachment in birds and monkeys had these. Bowlby extended this to humans proposing humans had sensitive period where after it, attachment is hard to form
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Strange situation
A controlled observation designed to test attachment security. Infants are assessed on their response to playing in an unfamiliar room, being left alone, being left with a stranger and being reunited with the caregiver
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Secure attachment
Generally thought of as the most desirable attachment type, associated with psychologically healthy outcomes. In the strange situation this is shown by moderate stranger and separation anxiety and ease of comfort and reunion
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Insecure avoidant attachment
An attachment type characterised by low anxiety but weak attachment. In the strange situation this is shown by low stranger and separation anxiety and little response to reuinion - an avoidance of the caregiver
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Insecure resistant attachment
An attachment type characterised by strong attachment and high anxiety. In the strange situation this is hown by high levels of stranger and separation anxiety and reistance to be comforted at reunion
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Cultural variations
Culture refers to norms and values existing in any group of people. Cultural variations then are the differences in norms and values that exist between people in different groups; concerns proportions of children with different attachment type
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Maternal deprivation
Emotional and intellectual consequences of separation between child and his/her mother or substitute. Bowlby proposed that continuous care from mother is essential for normal psychological development. Prolonged separation causes serious damage
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Institutionalisation
Effects of living in an institutionalised setting. Institution refers to place like a hospital or orphanage where children live for long continuous time; little care provided. Attachment research interested in effects on attachment and development
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Orphan studies
These concern children placed in care because their parents cannot look after them. An orphan is a child whose parents have died or permanently abondoned them
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Childhood relationships
Affiliations with other people in childhood including friends and classmates and with adults as teachers
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Adult relationships
Those relationships the child goes on to have later in life as an adult. These include friendships, working relationships, romantic relationships and relationships with own children
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Mother and infant reflect both the actions and emotions of the other and do this in a co-ordinated (synchronised) way

Back

Interactional synchrony

Card 3

Front

Many developmental theories identify a sequence of qualitatively different behaviours linked to specific ages. In stages of attachment, some characteristics of the infants behaviour towards adults changes as the infant gets older

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Attachments to two or more people. Most babies appear to develop multiple attachments once they have formed one true attachment with their main carer

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Studies carried out on non human species rather than on humans either for ethical or practical reasons. Practical because animals breed faster and researchers are interested in seeing results across more than one generation of animals

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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