Chapter 1: Fundamentals of computer systems

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  • Created by: Ndeshi
  • Created on: 25-03-16 12:42
what is a computer ?
An electronic , programmable data processing machine .
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What is a system?
A collection of parts that work together for some defined purpose.
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What do systems do?
Receive inputs from the outside, process them and then they output the results of the processing.
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what is a system separated from the outside world by?
They are separated by a system boundary.
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Why are computer systems important?
Most aspects of our lives are affected by computer systems.
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What is a general purpose system?
Personal computers such as desktops, laptops, notebooks and tablet computers.
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What is a dedicated system?
It is a system which is specially produced to perform a single function or set of functions. For example a ticket vending machine.
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What is a control system?
They are computer systems that control machinery , rather than produce output for humans to read or respond to.
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What is an embedded system?
They are systems which are part of a larger system.
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What is an expert system?
They are systems that are designed to behave like an human expert.
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What are the 3 component parts of an expert system?
A knowledge base , an inference engine and an interface.
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What is a an inference engine?
Software that makes deductions using the knowledge base.
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What is a management information system?
They are systems that bring together information from all parts of an organisation so the managers can make sensible decisions.
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What is meant by data integrity?
It relates to the data being accurate and consistent throughout it's life.
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How can data integrity be compromised?
Human errors, software bugs, viruses and other malware, hardware malfunctions and natural disasters.
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How can one reduce the risk to the data?
Regular backups , controlling access to data via security mechanisms , using validation rules to prevent the input of invalid data.
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How can reliability be improved?
Through testing . Testing is designed to uncover errors.
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Why can testing never be complete?
Software is so complex, testing is expensive and testing is time consuming.
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What are standards?
They are conventions and rules .
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Why are standards important?
they enable equipment from different manufacturers to work together. They minimise waste . They bring cost down by opening markets to competition.
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Name the 5 standards.
De facto, de jure, Propriety , industry and open
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hat are De facto standards?
Standards that develop over time because of common usage. They become important because they ensure that files and systems can be used by anyone.
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Give an example of a De facto standard.
PostScript, QWERTY keyboard and Microsoft word.
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What are de jure standards?
They are de facto standard that have become so universally accepted that they have to be adhered to otherwise communication is impossible.
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Give an example of a de jure standard.
ASCII ,PDF and Unicode.
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What are propriety standards?
Standards owned by an organisation. They ensure compatibility between the company's products.They can be used to reduce competition from rival products.
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What are industry standards?
Standards set by recognised non-commercial organisations.
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Give an example of an industry standard.
ANSI - sets standards for some programming languages.
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What are open standards?
standards which are publically available, produced collaboratively and not dominated by any one interest group.
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Give an example of an open standard.
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What does the UK data protection act cover?
Any data about a living and identifiable individual.
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Typical data protection laws include provisions that organisations must....
allow people to view the data held about them correct information when required , allow people to state that their data is not to be used for direct marketing.
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How can one reduce the energy used by computer systems?
use solid state storage it uses less energy than rotating disk drives, lay out equipment so it can be cooled efficiently.
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Why is disposal of obsolete computers an environmental issue.
Obsolete computers contain toxic materials such as lead, cadmium,beryllium and flame retardants.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is a system?


A collection of parts that work together for some defined purpose.

Card 3


What do systems do?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


what is a system separated from the outside world by?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Why are computer systems important?


Preview of the front of card 5
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