Chapter 1 Core Biology Aqa

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What is a balanced diet
A diet that consists of the right amount of nutrients and food groups
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Carbs, fat and protein do what
Build muscle cells and release energy
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What happens if a diet becomes unbalanced
A person may become malnourished
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Define metabolic rate
The rate at which chemical reactions happen in the body
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What happens if exercise increases
The chemical reactions in metabolic rate will be faster
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What factors affect metabolic rate
Inherited factors and proportion of muscle fat
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What makes your mass stay the same
If the energy you take in is the same as the mass of your body
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How do you become overweight/obese?
By eating too much food
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2 ways to reduce obesity
Eating less carbs and regular exercise
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2 Problems of long term obesity
Type 2 diabetes and high cholesterol and blood pressure levels
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2 consequences of starvation
Deficency diseases due to lack of vitamins and difficulty walking
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What can also affect metabolic rate
Genes inherited from parents
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What are the two types of cholesterol
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What is the 'good cholesterol' used for
Building cell muscles
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What health problems can 'bad cholesterol' increase
Increased risk of heart disease
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What do pathogens cause
Infectious diseases
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3 types of pathogen
Bacteria, virus and fungi
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Why did it take a long time for others to accept the ideas of Semmelweiss
Because they didn't know about bacteria or viruses
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3 ways pathogens are prevented from entering the body
Skin, mucus any stomach acid
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3 ways pathogens defend body
Ingest pathogens; digest and destroy them, produce antibodies; help destroy particular pathogens, Produce antitoxins; counteract toxins pathogens produce
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What is Penicilin and who was it discovered by
An antibiotic, Alexander Flemming 1928
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Why are viruses difficult to kill
Viruses reproduce inside cells so treatment could damage body cells
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What do other drugs do?
Relieve symptoms but don't cure problem
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4 ways of contamination when growing bacteria cultures
Skin, air, soil or water
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2 ways to keep culture pure
Prevent microorganisms from air getting onto equipment and kill all bacterial on equipment- pass metal loops through flame, boil solutions and agar
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3 steps to growing bacteria
Provide warmth and oxygen, keep them incubated at 25'c in schools, 35'c in industries, and give them a culture medium (liquid that contains nutrients)
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What happens when pathogens mutate
It results in a new form of mutation
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Difference between an epidemic and a pandemic
An epidemic is a disease spread within a country, a pandemic is a disease spread worldwide
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What is MRSA
A form of bacteria evolved through natural selection resistant to antibiotics
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How does natural selection cause resistant populations of bacteria to develop
Antibiotics kill non resistant strains which allow resistant ones to survive and multiply with no competition
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What is used to make a vaccine
Dead or inactive forms of a pathogen
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How does a vaccine make a person become immune
White blood cells produce antibodies, makes person immune
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What does MMR stand for
Measles, mumps and rubella
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What role does an antigen play
Antibodies recongise antigens, antigens stimulate white blood cells into making antibodies, antibodies then destroy antigens.
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What can measles do to the body?
Deafness and occasional death
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Advantages and disadvantages of vaccinations
Advantages - Protects individual from disease Disadvantages - May cause side effects
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What happens if anitbiotics are overused
Can lead to development of new strains of bacteria
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Why don't doctors prescribe anitbiotics for mild infections
Because bacteria will become resistant to the antibiotics and new strains being developed
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Why is it necessary to develop new medicines?
Some pathogens are resistant to drugs, new pathogens arise by mutation
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Card 2


Carbs, fat and protein do what


Build muscle cells and release energy

Card 3


What happens if a diet becomes unbalanced


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Card 4


Define metabolic rate


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What happens if exercise increases


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