Changing Urban Environments Facts

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  • Created by: allieal
  • Created on: 27-12-13 12:04
What is urbanisation?
The growth in the proportion of a country's populating living in urban areas
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What are two causes of urban growth?
National Population Change (60%- higher birth rate than death rate) and Rural-Urban Migration (40%- rise in movement into cities)
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Give some reasons why poorer people move from rural areas to cities?
Shortage of services in countryside (education, access to water and power etc.), More Jobs for example in industry as there is better infrastructure. People believe there is a better standard of living in urban areas (not always true)
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Give some reasons why richer people move from rural areas to cities?
Due to industrial and agricultural revolutions there is less need for farm larbour for example, Redevelopment of cities encourages people to move back into cities
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What is the effect of young people moving into cities?
They move to find work, have children in the city which increases proportion of urban population. Healthcare in cities is better and therefore people live longer in urban areas.
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What is the CBD?
The Central Business District- the main shopping and service area in a city. Usually found in the middle of the city so that it is easily accessible.
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Where are most businesses found in a city?
Central Business District (CBD)
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Describe the pattern of population density in a city?
Population density decreases as you move away from CBD, however it is often lowest in the CBD itself (too expensive for residential use)
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Describe the pattern of ageing of buildings as you move away from the CBD?
Age of building generally decreases as you move outwards
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What housing is typical of the inner city area?
Mix of poorer quality housing (eg. high rise tower blocks) and old industrial bulidings. Sometimes newer housing if redevelopment has occured
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Why do middle-class families tend to live in the suburbs?
Land is cheaper but easy to commute, nicer environment, less crime and pollution
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In LEDC cities where is more expensive housing usually found?
Directly surrounding the CBD, they are the only people who can afford this land
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Why is housing demand increasing in the UK?
Population increased by 7% since 1971, Number of households increased- more single person households, Leaving home earlier, Marrying later, living longer
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What is a brownfield site?
Land that has been built on before and is to be cleared and reused. These sites are often in the inner city
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What is a greenfield site?
Land that has not been built on before, usually in the countryside on the edge of a built-up area
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What are some advantages of building on brownfield sites?
Easier to get planning permission, Utilities such as water and electricity already provided, Roads already exist, Near to facilities in town centres, Cuts communting
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What are some disadvantages of greenfield sites?
Greenfield is cheaper to prepare, Restrictions of existing road networks, Not pleasant countryside, Land expensive and smaller plots, Less space for gardens.
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What are the effects of traffic problems in cities?
Air Pollution, Loss of Time, Traffic Jams, Stress Levels Increases, Road Accidents
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What possible solutions are their to traffic problems in MEDC cities?
*Ring Roads & By-Passes in the rural-urban fringe *Investment in public transport systems to discourage use of cars *Park & Ride systems *One Way Streets to speed up traffic *Banning Cars from CBD *Congestion Charging
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Why do people choose to cluster with people of similar ethnic background?
*Support from others- feel safer and protected from racial abuse *Familiar Culture *Specialist Facilities *Safety in numbers *Employment Factors- migrants tend to have low-paid jobs, limited money restricts housing opportunities
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Why did CBDs suffer in the late 20th century?
*Traffic Problems- increase in cars *Pollution made CBDs unpleasant *1960s urban design (poor quality concreate) did not age well *Growth of out-of-town shopping centres *Shops need more space *Decline in cinema, theatre, restaurant going
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What does inequality mean?
The extreme differences between poverty and wealth, as well as in peoples' wellbeing and access to things like jobs, housing and education. May include- housing provision, access to services, access to open land, safety and security
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What are squatter settlements/shanty towns?
Shanty Towns are made up of a group of unplanned and illegal shelters constructed from cheap or waste materials such as cardboard, wood and cloth.
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What does the 'informal sector mean'?
The part of the economy where jobs are created by people to try to get an income (eg. washing, mending bicycles) which are not recognised in official figures
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Where are shanty towns commonly located in a city?
The outskirts of a city, or within large cities on derelict land or near rubbish trips, they can also be near transport links-eg. on the outskirts of a airport
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Give a political impact of rapid urban growth?
*People living in shanty towns have no legal right to the land and therefore often cannot be registered as citizens and therefore cannot vote in elections so there views are ignored
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Give some social impacts of rapid urban growth?
*Increase crime, traffic congestion, birth rate, infact mortality rate, sewage in the street *Disease spreads quickly *More poverty/street children *Breaks up families *Poor quality building materials *Malnutrition *Loss of underground water supplies
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Give some economic impacts of rapid urban growth?
*Wages low, workers exploited *Unemployment high as few jobs in formal sector *Rural migrants have not got skills to work in formal sector
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Give some environmental impacts of rapid urban growth?
*Built on agricultural land/woodland so this is destroyed *Air pollution/smog *Water pollution in rivers (used for sewage/rubbish disposal *Shanty towns built on unsafe/ poor quality land- prone to flooding, fires, landslides etc.
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What are self-help schemes?
Programes where the governement and local people work together to improve conditions in settlements. The government provides permanent building materials and local people use them to build their own homes.
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What are the advantages of self-help schemes?
*Housing is improved and safer *People can register their house *Money is saved on labour *This money can be spent on improving facilities and services eg. electricity and sewers
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What are site & service schemes?
People given a site (small concrete building) for a small amount of rent to be spent on basic amenities. They have rights of ownership and have to complete building and improve it themselves
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What are advantages/ disadvantages of site & service schemes?
AD- *Encourages community spirit *Electricity no longer illegal *People own plot for development DISAD- *Expensive to governement *Sometimes rent too expensive for some people
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Why is slum clearance no longer seen as a solution to the problem of shanty towns?
*Moves the problem, doesn't solve it *Prevents development from self help schemes *Cannot cope with population increase
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How is rehabilitation different from self-help schemes?
Communities are specifically encouraged to improve education and medical services in their area in exchange for a site/building materials
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Why are demolition and housing development projects not always effective in solving the shanty town problems?
*No services provided *Not sustainable/well built tower blocks *Not finished correctly *Accommodation is not flexible to varying family sizes *Very expensive for government
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Why do LEDC cities struggle with the problem of waste?
*Money- safely disposing of toxic waste is very expensive and money is usually spent on more urgent problems *Infrastructure- less roads to waste disposal lorries to collect waste *Scale- large cities produce a lot of waste each day
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What are some effects of air pollution?
*Can lead to acid rain, which damages building and vegetation *Health Problems- headaches and bronchitis *Pollution destroy ozone layer which protects us against harmful rays
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How can air pollution be managed?
Setting air quality standards for industries and constantly monitoring levels of pollutants to check they're safe
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What are some effects of water pollution?
*Kills aquatic animals and disrupts food chain *harmful chemicals build up and can be passed into humans through the food chain *Contamination of clean water supplies *Spread of disease eg. typhoid
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How can water pollution be managed?
Building sewage treatment plants and passing laws forcing factories to remove pollutants from their waste water
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Define 'sustainable development'?
meeting the needs of today without damaging the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
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Name some factors that make a city more sustainable?
*Compact forms of residential development *Mixed land use *Employment based on education & skills *Movement on foot & bicycle *Wind & solar energy *Tertiary treatment of sewage *Protect natural water systems *Protect environment *Reduction of waste
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Give an example of how London has tried to be sustainable?
'Boris Bikes' , the removal of 'bendy buses' and hydrogen powered cars
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Why has the Liverpool Waterfront become a World Heritage site?
To conserve the historic and natural environment for future generations. The building were built in the hey-day of the British empire.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What are two causes of urban growth?


National Population Change (60%- higher birth rate than death rate) and Rural-Urban Migration (40%- rise in movement into cities)

Card 3


Give some reasons why poorer people move from rural areas to cities?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Give some reasons why richer people move from rural areas to cities?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is the effect of young people moving into cities?


Preview of the front of card 5
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