Changing Family Patterns

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  • Created by: Min
  • Created on: 23-02-14 16:41
How do people view co-habiting?
As a trial run, which is why it has increased
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How many petitions come from women? and how many marriages end in divorce? What is divorce the major causeof? What is the most common reason for divorce?
7/10. 40%. Diversity. 'Unreasonable behaviour'
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Why has the divorce rate risen (5)?
Social policy, stigma, secularisation, rising expectations and changes in the position of women
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What has social policy meant? In 1984, what was the time period before you could divorce?
It is easier to get a divorce. It was reduced from 3years down to 1 year
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What did the Divorce Reform Act state?
1969 (effect 1971) - 'Irretrievable breakdown through unreasonable behaviour, adultery, seperation or desertion' (2years if both wanted to, 5 if only one party wanted to)
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What are the 3 types of change in social policy relating to divorce?
Equality of legal rights, more reasons for divorce, becoming cheaper (Legal Aid)
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How has stigma changed divorce?
Became more acceptable since the 60s and is generally seen as a misfortune (except in N. Ireland)
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Has secularisation changed divorce?
Churches have softened their views, churches still don't re-marry a divorcee and in N. Ireland it is seen a socially unacceptable. However the church has less of an influence on people
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Have expectations increased the divorce rate?
Yes - they are higher now = more disappointment, people are less willing to live in an empty shell or empty nest marriage
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Cjanges in the position of women influenced divorce?
They are more financially independent and more likely to be in paid work, girls regularly out perform boys in education, benefits mean women can leave their husband more easily, women have more choices
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How do feminists view divorce?
Good thing, breaking away from patriarchal oppression, women can suffer from stress, domestic abuse ect. in marriages so they are better off divorced
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How do feminists explain the rise in divorce?
Dual burdan and/or lack of power can lead to a divorce, women value friendship and emotional support - if men don't give it then they are more likely to get a divorce
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What is the functionalist view on divorce?
Dreadful thing, leads to increased crime (youth), causing the breakdown of society and leads to dysfunctional families, children will lack in socialisation and discipline (lack of male role)
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How do functionalists try to reduce divorce?
Making it more expensive/harder, tax benefits to nuclear families
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How does the New Right view divorce?
Undermines the traditional nuclear family, creates an 'underclass of welfare dependent female lone parents and leaves boys without the adult role model they need'
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How do Postmodernists view the rise in divorce rate?
Sign of individuals having more freedom to end a relationship when it no longer meets bother partners needs, causes greater family diversity
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What has happened to marriage rates?
fewer people are getting married, serial monogamy is more frequent, people are marrying later, fewer couples are marrying in church (secularisation), re-marriages have increased, age of marriage is rising, many co-habit before but still popular
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What is co-habitation? What has happened to it? What is expected to happen to it?
Unmarried couple living together in a sexual relationship. Doubled since the 60s and 25% under 60s co-habit. Double by 2021
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How do most view co-habiting?
Trial run for marriage or a permenant alternative to marriage
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Why has marriage decreased (3)?
Secularisation, stigma and changes in women's position
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What is plastic sexuality? What does it mean for women?
Sexuality not being linked to reproduction. They are more free and they don't have to worry about getting pregnant
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What is a pure relationship?
You get out of it what you want and lasts as long as it is convenient, entered into for the sake of it, conditional, emotional equality free from traditional ideas
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How many adults in the UK are in a same sex relationship (average)? Is this an increase? Is it an accurate figure?
5-9%. It may not be because it is now more exceptable (except in N. Ireland). No - not everyone admits to it
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Why the increase in same sex relationships?
Changes in attitudes, social policy (2004 Civil Partnership Act and Summer 2014 marriage legal)
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One person household facts?
Risen because of decline in marriage, some are +65, men -65 because of divorceor seperation,
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What's it called when someone chooses to be single?
Creative singlehood
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What does LATs? What is it? Why this lifestyle?
Living Apart Together. Unmarried couple who don't co-habit but in a relationship. Don't want to give up their home, money, age or just more favourable
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How were children viewed and how are they viewed now? When did abortion and contraception become legal?
Past=economic asset, now=economic liability. In the 60s
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How many children are born outside of a marriage? How are they registered? What is it in most cases?
4/10. Most are still jointly registered. The parents are co-habiting
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Why do couples have fewer children?
Women have later when less fertile, infant mortality rate lower and more women are remaining childless
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What are the reasons for the changes in childbearing?
Decline in stigma of having them outside of marriage, increased co-habitation, women have more choice
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What is the increase of lone parent families seen as causing?
Rise in social problems such as: juvenile crime, bad educational performance
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Average no. og children living in a lone parent family? What sort of mothers are normally lone parent (married or not)? How likely is a child to live in poverty if they are in a lone parent family?
1/4. Previously it was married, now its never married mothers. Twice as likely as those with two parents
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What are the reasons for the increase in lone parent families (2)?
Increase in divorce/separation, women are more likely to have children outside of marriage,
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Why are lone parent families often headed by mothers (3)?
People believe that they have the nurturing role so are better suited to it, divorce courts are more likely to hand the children to the mother and men are less willing to give up their careers to look after their children
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What does Charles Murray have to say about lone parents? What is his solution?
More of them is because of an over generous welfare state which creates a pererse incentive. It also creates a dependency culture. His sollution is to abolish the welfare state
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What are the criticisms of Charles Murray?
Welfare state is not over generous because lone parents are more likely to live in poverty
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Why are lone parents more likely to live in poverty (4)?
Lack of affordable childcare (60% unemployed), inadequate welfare benefits, most lone parents are women who earn less than men, fathers not paying maintenance
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What ethnicity has the highest % of lone parents? Why?
Black Caribbean/African (+50% in 2002). Matrifocal culture, high value women put on independence and high male unemployment
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Which ethnic groups tend to have larger households? How many generations can they contain? What sort of family type is most those?
Indian, Bangledeshi and Pakistani's. 3 generations. Nuclear rather than extended
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How do Asian families view the extended family? How do they view the elderly?
Very important. They have a high respect for them and so rarely see them in care homes
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What does Parsons think has happened to the nuclear family and why?
Become extinct because of functional fit.
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What 2 studies disproved Parsons idea of the extended family no longer existing?
Willmott + Young - 57 Bethnal Green (dispersed extended familyie. geographical separate) and Forster's 90 Villains - 90 crims in prison all had high regard for the extended fam. and were living close by
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Chamberlain's study
Extended fam. survives and has important functions, midlle class = financial help and emotional support, working class = live close, frequent contact and domestic help (mums + daughters). Caribbean fam. dispersed but give support
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Sue Sharpe's study?
Girls changing ambitions, in th 70s asked and they were love, marriage, husband and children. In the 90s it was career and supporting themselves. She found girls increasing wariness of marriage and were concerned about independence
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Elston's study?
400 dr. couples, 80% female dr. took time off to look after kids when only 2% men did, minority professional couples shared housework and childcare, shows continued inequality
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Cahsmore's study?
More working mothers who have less earning power choose to be single and live on benefits because experienced abuse, feminism and more opportunities = more never married lone mothers, monogamy has been replaced by serial monogamy
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Card 2


How many petitions come from women? and how many marriages end in divorce? What is divorce the major causeof? What is the most common reason for divorce?


7/10. 40%. Diversity. 'Unreasonable behaviour'

Card 3


Why has the divorce rate risen (5)?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What has social policy meant? In 1984, what was the time period before you could divorce?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What did the Divorce Reform Act state?


Preview of the front of card 5
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